Law is a system of rules created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior, with its precise definition a matter of longstanding debate. It has been variously described as a science and the art of justice. State-enforced laws can be made by a group legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes; by the executive through decrees and regulations; or established by judges through precedent, usually in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals may create legally binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that adopt alternative ways of resolving disputes to standard court litigation. The creation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, and the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics, economics, history and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people.
Legal systems vary between countries, with their differences analysed in comparative law. In civil law jurisdictions, a legislature or other central body codifies and consolidates the law. In common law systems, judges make binding case law through precedent, although on occasion this may be overturned by a higher court or the legislature. Historically, religious law influenced secular matters, and is still used in some religious communities. Sharia law based on Islamic principles is used as the primary legal system in several countries, including Iran and Saudi Arabia.Law's scope can be divided into two domains. Public law concerns government and society, including constitutional law, administrative law, and criminal law. Private law deals with legal disputes between individuals and/or organisations in areas such as contracts, property, torts/delicts and commercial law. This distinction is stronger in civil law countries, particularly those with a separate system of administrative courts; by contrast, the public-private law divide is less pronounced in common law jurisdictions.Law provides a source of scholarly inquiry into legal history, philosophy, economic analysis and sociology. Law also raises important and complex issues concerning equality, fairness, and justice.
The first image is for a conducting sheet (part of it anyway), the second is for a nonconducting sheet. Gauss' law seems to tell me that the electric field strength are different - they differ by a factor of two. Is this true?
The charge enclosed in both of them are the same, and my intuition...
Here is a curve of induced emf against time. We know from Faraday's law that E = -N d(phi)dt and due to the negative sign, clearly E and d(phi)/dt must have opposite signs, i.e if E > 0it would not be possible for d(phi)dt > 0, as then -N d(phi)dt = E <0 , when we already defined E >0, clearly a...
Inverse square law would reduce the gravity from the parts of Earth that are farthest from our feet.
It'll also reduce the gravity from Earth's center by a lesser amount, but would that be lesser enough so the gravity 20 kilometers under our feet is stronger than the core's gravity or even the...
For this problem,
The solution is,
However, why must we use absolute temperature for the ideal gas law (i.e why can we not use Celsius for T)
Many thanks!
Hi! This project involves both mechanical and electrical elements, so I'm discussing it in this forum since I'm not sure which one it would fit better into.
I'm working on an experiment in which I'm trying to measure the speed of sound through water. The approach is simple: I have a long...
Assume that a closed system of cylindar filled with ideal gas consists of a movable piston.We know from the 1st law dQ=dU +dW.
According to the 2nd law mechanical energy can be totally converted into heat energy but heat energy cannot be converted completely into mechanical energy.The question...
I am trying to Derive Malus's Law. My textbook says that an electric field as an amplitude ##E## before passing thought the polarizer and reduce to ##E_{trans} = E\cos\theta##.
I am trying to understand why this occurs my considering a vertically polarized light passing though a polarizer that...
A. The two great cosmological discoveries of this century, Hubble's redshift and the cosmic microwave background, have made the Big Bang theory the most credible theory of the origin of the universe so far.
B. The two great cosmological discoveries of this century, Hubble's law and the cosmic...
For whatever reason, I'm having a hard time conceptualizing this problem. I understand that the tangential components of all forces involved need to cancel out in order for the bead to be stationary. I also understand that there is a mgsinθ in the negative θ-hat direction. What I don't...
I truly am not sure. I assume it is that because everything has inertia, an a tendency to remain in a constant state of motion, when the clothes are quickly spun around they cannot remain in a constant state of motion (of either rest or constant velocity), but the water is "pushed"/spun out of...
What I did was just sub in the numbers and convert km to m. So (6.67E-10)(1000)(5.98E24)/(1,000,000+6.37E6)^2 * (1,000,000+6.37E6) So it's just (6.67E-10)(1000)(5.98E24)/(1,000,000+6.37E6). I thought this was a straightforward problem, but it seems that it is not. What am I missing?
I am having difficulty understanding the information below. In the second line it states that F=0 as there is no external force on the system. However it later calculates acceleration of the rocket.
How can Force=0 if there is acceleration? (This is the first time I have encountered the...
Is it possible, that one physics law is "Everything is in motion?" (since zero doesnt belong to nature)...if so, does that implies that black holes move?
TL;DR Summary: I approach a rocket acceleration problem using two approaches: F=d(m*v)/dt and F=ma. The resulting differential equations are different. What am I doing wrong?
We have a ship with a mass-reaction rocket engine floating in space.
The initial mass of the ship (including fuel) is...
I was wondering why energy of capacitor does not equal change in kinetic energy PLUS change in potential energy where potential energy is the change in the potential energy of the charges. I believe that should be so because energy conservation = change in kinetic energy plus change in potential...
The law states that in the same volume at the same pressure, the number of any gas is the same. It seems to me that this law does not apply, since each molecule of a different gas must have a different size, and between the molecules there will also be different sizes of pressure force, density...
Would the force (as predicted by Coulomb’s law) exerted on two charged particles q1 and q2, separated by distance r, and at rest relative to frame S change, if q1 and q2, began moving relative to S but we’re still at rest relative to each other?
Bragg's law is schematically shown on the picture:
Two parallel and plane waves are shown which propagate towards the crystal. For plane waves, wave fronts are flat planes perpendicular to the wave propagation with infinite size. In reality, there are no plane waves. Nevertheless, they are...
Why is the length element (vector ds) perpendicular to the current?
I though length element should be parallel to current.
Would anybody be kind enough to help.
3 A+ 2 A = 7 A+ I
I = -2A
How the current can be in negative direction? If the sign if negative, doesn't it mean that the current will move towards the point P? Also If I am taking the 2A to be positive then Kirchhoff's law isn't satisfied as 5A≠7A
I have solved the question like this:
Since Volume=Upthrust
We need to find the upthrust and the volume V. To find the volume, we will submerge the block in the water and find the difference.
To find the upthrust F, we will subtract the weight (finding the weight usinf newton-meter) from the...
Hello, I am studying probability and came across this theorem, it's the law of total probability with extra conditioning, I tried to work out a proof but couldn't ,does anyone know the proof for this :
thanks!
Hello,
I'm looking over some old school notes and re-learning some basic heat transfer. I have known Fourier's Law (1D: ##q = k\frac{dT}{dx}##) for a long time, but when I look at it now I find it strange that heat flux is inversely proportional to the length of the conductor. I would think...
And is that modified version of Coulomb's law "more accurate"?
Edit: Same thing goes for Newtonian gravity, is "Newtonian gravity but ##F## converges as ##r\rightarrow##0" "more accurate"?
This problem is from MIT's module again.
I have a doubt about Newton's Third Law. How is the normal and weight of the book not Newton's 3rd Law pairs?
When the book is placed on the table, I imagine that the book's weight exerts a force on the table and the table exerts and equal and...
Why when you integrate the Biot-Savart Law do we not include limits of integration on the left-hand side of the equation (for the differential magnetic field)?
Would the lower limit be 0 and the upper limit be B? How would you tell?
Many thanks!
I am trying to figure out an intuitive understanding of how differential phase contrast (DPC) as a modality for measuring the phase shift as light passes through transparent samples. In a nutshell, DPC works by using either asymetric illumination or a split detector to standard compound...
My textbook gives the equation for Faraday's Law as ε=-(dΦB)/(dt) , the derivative of magnetic flux with respect to time. I have also seen Faraday's law expressed as ε= -(ΔΦB)/(Δt). Are these two forms equivalent? Thanks!
I am currently self-learning Ohm’s Law. My current approach is researching Ohm’s law and using multiple sources of information to gather relevant details about Ohm’s Law, like who discovered the laws and what the laws explain, and its concepts, like Voltage and Current.
This approach is making...
Hi!
For this problem,
When Area 2 > Area 1, but not by much, is this phenomenon no longer called Torricelli's Law because the water is not approximately stationary at the top surface? What is this called now?
Many thanks!
Hi
I posted this differential equation to WolframAlpha https://www.wolframalpha.com/input?i2d=true&i=Power[\(40)Divide[a,1+b*cos\(40)y\(40)x\(41)\(41)]\(41),2]*y'\(40)x\(41)=c but no solution , " Standard computation time exceeded... Try again with Pro computation time "
Should I ( buy and )...
hello i would like to understand something, i found the right answer but there is still something i don't understand.
here is the figure
and here is my correct solution
what i don't understand is why F(3,Q) is 3kQ/r^2
i mean why is the 3? i only calculat the force between q3 and Q so why...
I know that Ienl for the inner cylinder is just I and the current density for the outer tube is J1= -I/(pi(Ra^2-Rb^2). I assume that the current through the enclosed portion of the conducting tube (I1) is equal to J1(A1) where A1 is the area of the enclosed portion of the conducting tube. I...
Newton's gravity depends on the euclidean distance between two masses.
Two comoving frames will have different values of length between masses so the forces will be different in two frames.
Is it enough to prove that the gravity rule has to be modified?
I was able to solve this question successfully by utilizing the sine and cosine law however my instructor said I was only allowed to utilize the vector component method, I am unsure how to complete this question using the vector component method as we have two unknowns(those being the angle of...
I know the Gauss law for surface integral to calculate total charge by integrating the normal components of electric field around whole surface . but in above expression charge is calculated using line integration of normal components of electric field along line. i don't understand this...
"Reversibility means that we never lose information, that at a fundamental level we can always retrodict the past as well as predict the future in the laws of physics".
Susskind in his Theoretical minimum Lecture 2 describes about the laws which are true and which are not. He tells the law of...
I solved laplacian equation. and got the solution of V(r, phi) = a. +b.lnr + (summation) an r^n sin(n phi +alpha n ) + (summation) bn r ^-n sin( n phi +beta n)
Newton arrived at "there is a force that drives a planet around the star by examining kepler's laws but how did he arrive to inverse square law by kepler's third law (##T^2=\frac {4\pi r^3}{GM}##)?
Thank you.
Here, it's shown how white light, after passing from air to another medium, gets broken down into its constituent coloured rays. Each has its own refractive index in the medium, but it's only shown here red, blue and yellow. The auther comments on this image and says that, for small angles of...