# Cannon Fire! Senior Physics Research Project

• Michael17
In summary, the "Cannon Fire! Senior Physics Research Project" aims to explore the physics principles behind the trajectory of a cannonball. Materials needed include a cannon or model, cannonballs, launch mechanism, measuring tools, and possibly a ramp. The steps involved include setting up, measuring angles, firing and recording data, and analyzing results. Safety precautions should be taken, such as wearing appropriate gear and securing the cannon. This project can be expanded or modified by investigating different variables or incorporating mathematical analysis or simulations.
Michael17
Cannon Fire!

A senior physics class conducting a research project on projectile motion constructs a device that can launch a cricket ball. The launching device is designed so that the ball can be launced at ground level with an initial velocity of 28m/s at an angle of 30 degrees to the horizontal. At what time will the ball reach its maximum height?

Figure the vertical velocity component from the angle.

Divide by the magnitude of gravity that is acting to slow it down.

Based on the given information, we can use the equations of projectile motion to determine the time at which the ball will reach its maximum height. The first step would be to break the initial velocity into its horizontal and vertical components. The horizontal component remains constant at 28m/s, while the vertical component can be found using trigonometry as 28m/s * sin(30) = 14m/s.

Next, we can use the equation for maximum height in projectile motion, which states that the maximum height (h) is equal to the initial vertical velocity squared (v0^2) divided by twice the acceleration due to gravity (2g). In this case, the acceleration due to gravity is -9.8m/s^2 since it acts downwards. Plugging in the values, we get:

h = (14m/s)^2 / (2 * -9.8m/s^2)
h = 98m / -19.6
h = -5m

Since the maximum height is negative, this means that the ball will reach its maximum height at 5 meters below the initial height. To find the time at which this occurs, we can use the equation for vertical displacement in projectile motion, which states that the vertical displacement (y) is equal to the initial vertical velocity (v0) multiplied by time (t) plus half the acceleration due to gravity (0.5gt^2). In this case, we know that the vertical displacement is -5m, the initial vertical velocity is 14m/s, and the acceleration due to gravity is -9.8m/s^2. Plugging in the values, we get:

-5m = (14m/s) * t + 0.5 * (-9.8m/s^2) * t^2
-5m = 14m/s * t - 4.9m/s^2 * t^2
0 = 4.9m/s^2 * t^2 - 14m/s * t - 5m

Using the quadratic formula, we can solve for t and get two solutions: t = 0.42s and t = 2.38s. Since the ball reaches its maximum height at t = 0.42s, we can conclude that the ball will reach its maximum height in approximately 0.42 seconds after being launched. However, it should be noted that this

## 1. What is the purpose of the "Cannon Fire! Senior Physics Research Project"?

The purpose of the "Cannon Fire! Senior Physics Research Project" is to investigate the physics principles involved in the trajectory of a cannonball fired from a cannon. It allows students to apply their knowledge of physics concepts such as projectile motion, forces, and energy to a real-world scenario.

## 2. What materials are needed for the "Cannon Fire! Senior Physics Research Project"?

The materials needed for this project include a cannon or a model of a cannon, cannonballs, a launch mechanism, a measuring tape, a protractor, and a stopwatch. You may also need materials to construct a ramp or other equipment to help with the launch and data collection process.

## 3. What are the steps involved in conducting the "Cannon Fire! Senior Physics Research Project"?

The steps involved in this project include setting up the cannon and launch mechanism, choosing and measuring the angle of launch, firing the cannon and measuring the distance traveled by the cannonball, repeating the experiment at different angles, and analyzing the data to find patterns and draw conclusions.

## 4. What are the safety precautions to keep in mind while conducting the "Cannon Fire! Senior Physics Research Project"?

Safety should be a top priority while conducting this project. Some precautions to keep in mind include wearing appropriate safety gear, such as goggles and gloves, keeping a safe distance from the launching area, and ensuring that the cannon is properly secured and stable before firing.

## 5. How can the "Cannon Fire! Senior Physics Research Project" be expanded or modified?

There are many ways to expand or modify this project, depending on the student's interests and goals. Some ideas include investigating the effect of different cannonball sizes or masses on the trajectory, varying the launch height or surface, or studying the impact of air resistance on the cannonball's flight. Students can also incorporate mathematical analysis or create computer simulations to enhance their research.

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