I don't know if the answers by me are correct or not to these questions. Can someone please check them and give me some suggesstions. thanks QUESTION 1 Explain the distinctive stages of a creep failure. (5 marks) ANSWER Creep is the slow deformation of a material when it is under the influence of stresses. It comes about as a result of long term exposure to levels of stress that are below the yield strength of the material. There are three stages of creep: 1. Primary – where plastic deformation occurs at decreasing strain rate. In this stage the strain rate is relatively high, however it slows down with increasing strain. This is due to work hardening. 2. Secondary – where the strain rate eventually reaches a minimum and becomes near constant. This is because of the equilibrium between work hardening and recovery. 3. Tertiary – where the strain rate exponentially increases with strain eventually leading to fracture. QUESTION 2 Outline the ways that creep may lead to an engineering component ceasing to perform its designed function. (3 marks) ANSWER Creeping can slowly deform the engineering component which reduces the components efficiency. As time goes on the component become less and less efficient. This will also mean that the number of functions that the component can perform reduces and/or cannot perform them properly. Eventually this leads to a fracture which totally disables the component from doing the job it was designed for. The rate of this deformation is a function of the material properties, exposure time, exposure temperature and the applied structural load. Depending on the magnitude of the applied stress and its duration, the deformation may become so large that a component can no longer perform its function — for example creep of a turbine blade will cause the blade to contact the casing, resulting in the failure of the blade. QUESTION Explain, in the context of a practical example, the reasons why rigorous control of operating temperatures and regular NDT are necessary to prevent service creep failures. Suggest an appropriate steel specification for good creep resistance. (12 marks) ANSWER Creep is more severe in materials that are subjected to heat for long periods, and near the melting point. Creep always increases with temperature. Unlike brittle fracture, creep deformation does not occur suddenly upon the application of stress. Instead, strain accumulates as a result of long-term stress. Creep deformation is "time-dependent" deformation. The temperature range in which creep deformation may occur differs in various materials. For example, Tungsten requires a temperature in the thousands of degrees before creep deformation can occur while ice formations will creep in freezing temperature.