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Derivation of Euler's formula for phi(m)

  1. Jan 12, 2008 #1

    Eus

    User Avatar

    I read on http://www.cut-the-knot.org/blue/Euler.shtml that the derivation of the Euler's formula for [itex]\varphi(m)[/itex] requires that the following multiplicative property of [itex]\varphi[/itex] be established:

    [tex]
    \varphi(m_{1}m_{2})=\varphi(m_{1})\varphi(m_{2})\mbox{ for coprime } m_{1} \mbox{ and } m_{2}
    [/tex]

    The article proves that the multiplicative property holds in the following way:
    Let [itex]0 \leq n < m[/itex] be coprime to [itex]m[/itex].
    Find remainders [itex]n_{1}[/itex] and [itex]n_{2}[/itex] of division of [itex]n[/itex] by [itex]m_{1}[/itex] and [itex]m_{2}[/itex], respectively:
    [tex]
    n\equiv n_{1} \mbox{ (mod }m_{1}\mbox{) } \mbox{and } n\equiv n_{2} \mbox{ (mod } m_{2} \mbox{)}
    [/tex]
    Obviously, [itex]n_{1}[/itex] is coprime to [itex]m_{1}[/itex] and [itex]n_{2}[/itex] is coprime to [itex]m_{2}[/itex].

    Although it says "obviously", I don't find that the relationship is obvious enough. That is:
    [tex]
    n \mbox{ is coprime to } m\mbox{ and }m=m_{1}m_{2},\ m_{1} \mbox{ is coprime to } m_{2} }\mbox{ and }n\equiv n_{1} \mbox{ (mod }m_{1}\mbox{) } \rightarrow n_{1} \mbox{ is coprime to } m_{1}
    [/tex]
    Is there any theorem that will guarantee that relationship?

    Besides that, why is the value of [itex]\varphi(m_{1}m_{2})[/itex] found by multiplying [itex]\varphi(m_{1})[/itex] and [itex]\varphi(m_{2})[/itex] instead of by adding [itex]\varphi(m_{1})[/itex] and [itex]\varphi(m_{2})[/itex]?

    Thank you.
     
    Last edited: Jan 12, 2008
  2. jcsd
  3. Jan 12, 2008 #2
    the remainder [itex]n_{1}[/itex] is coprime to [itex]m_{1}[/itex] and the remainder [itex]n_{2}[/itex] is coprime to [itex]m_{2}[/itex] because otherwise the division of [itex]n_{1}[/itex] by [itex]m_{1}[/itex] and [itex]n_{2}[/itex] by [itex]m_{2}[/itex] should give another remainders, and in these cases we cannot call [itex]n_{1}[/itex] and [itex]n_{2}[/itex] remainders. For instance if a = qb + r, r being the remainder, then by definition r < b (otherwise the division of r by b should let another remainder, and then r shouldn't be a the remainder). So, if a = qb + r, r being the remainder, b and r are always coprimes.
     
    Last edited: Jan 12, 2008
  4. Jan 15, 2008 #3

    Eus

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    Ah, thank you for the explanation.

    But, why is the value of [itex]\varphi(m_{1}m_{2})[/itex] found by multiplying [itex]\varphi(m_{1})[/itex] and [itex]\varphi(m_{2})[/itex] instead of by adding [itex]\varphi(m_{1})[/itex] and [itex]\varphi(m_{2})[/itex]?
     
  5. Jan 15, 2008 #4
    this is a little bit long to prove

    for a p prime, [itex]\varphi(p^a) = p^{a-1}(p-1)[/itex]

    proof:

    for every prime number, the amount of number from 1 to p such that all of them are coprimes with p is = p-1. Ex: p = 7 ==> 6,5,4,3,2,1 are coprime with 7

    there are [itex]p^{a-1}[/itex] integers between 1 and [itex]p^a[/itex] which are divisible by p: p, 2p, 3p, 4p, 5p, ..., [itex]p^{a-1}p[/itex]

    thus the set {1,2,3,4,...,[itex]p^a[/itex]} contain exactly [itex]p^a - p^{a-1} = p^{a-1}(p-1)[/itex] integers which are relatively prime to [itex]p^a[/itex]

    from here one can use this result to prove that relation

    to prove the relation [tex]\varphi(m_{1}m_{2})=\varphi(m_{1})\varphi(m_{2})\ box{ for coprime } m_{1} \mbox{ and } m_{2}[/tex] I think you can search the web and find probably the same proof that I have here from a book
     
    Last edited: Jan 15, 2008
  6. Jan 17, 2008 #5

    Eus

    User Avatar

    Ah, I see.

    Thank you very much for your help.
     
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