# Discrete Element Method in FORTRAN 90 for collisions of particles

• Fortran
• Purahei
In summary,This person is looking for a FORTRAN reference card, algorithm, and methodology for modeling collisions of particles. They also mention that they are a beginner in that language.
Purahei
Does anyone know a simple implementation in FORTRAN 90 of collisions of particles?

Purahei said:
Does anyone know a simple implementation in FORTRAN 90 of collisions of particles?
Have you done any research on your own?

Yes, but most of them are in C++. Actually I'm beginner in Fortran.

Why do you want a FORTRAN implementation?

Can you clarify what you are looking for - is it
1. a library that implements a (not simple) algorithm for modelling collisions in a system of many particles so that you can incorporate it into a project? Or
2. some Fortran code that models a collision between two particles so you can copy it for an assignment?

So the goal for you is to learn Fortran, not google. This your first assignment ?

Whilst post #1 mentions 'collisions of particles' which is xxxx wide ( just try to imagine how much code sixty years of high energy physics has generated ).

Before you even begin programming: work out a plan what you want to do, collect the relevant FORmulas, and don't start TRANslating into code until you have put together the simplest possible case, written an algorithm in pseudo-language and worked it out by hand, on a piece of paper .

enosis_, Purahei and pbuk
pbuk said:
Can you clarify what you are looking for - is it
1. a library that implements a (not simple) algorithm for modelling collisions in a system of many particles so that you can incorporate it into a project? Or
2. some Fortran code that models a collision between two particles so you can copy it for an assignment?
I have to create a program in Fortran that models a system of particles. Because I'm new in that language, I would like to have a reference to start.

I get plenty hits with 'fortran code for simple collisions of particles' or 'computer code for simple collisions of particles'.
Purahei said:
program in Fortran that models a system of particles
Very ambitious indeed. Again: This your first assignment ? Do you have programming experience with other languages ?

More than good enough to learn fortran

Making things difficult can be a second step
(see first -animated- picture same page)​

Anyway: what do you have in mind in the form of output ? long lists of t, x, y, ... or something else ?

Purahei said:
I have to create a program in Fortran that models a system of particles. Because I'm new in that language, I would like to have a reference to start.

The references would be :

a) creating a suitable math algorithm for doing that, and
b) a Fortran reference card, and
c) a decent methodology suitable for the problem.

Last edited:
BvU said:
I get plenty hits with 'fortran code for simple collisions of particles' or 'computer code for simple collisions of particles'.
Very ambitious indeed. Again: This your first assignment ? Do you have programming experience with other languages ?

More than good enough to learn fortran

Making things difficult can be a second step
(see first -animated- picture same page)​

Anyway: what do you have in mind in the form of output ? long lists of t, x, y, ... or something else ?
Yes, and then make an animation with those results.

You sure you are required to use fortran for that animation too ? Perhaps with the use of some library ?

I will use Gnuplot or GID

Purahei said:
Does anyone know a simple implementation in FORTRAN 90 of collisions of particles?
Purahei said:
Yes, but most of them are in C++. Actually I'm beginner in Fortran.
Purahei said:
This all seems very odd to me, if you're expected to write a program about particle collisions, but have no experience in writing Fortran code. Are you in a university class, and is the expectation that you already know how to write programs?

BvU

## 1. What is the Discrete Element Method (DEM) and how does it work?

The Discrete Element Method is a computational technique used to simulate the dynamics of systems consisting of a large number of discrete particles. It works by solving the equations of motion for each individual particle, taking into account the interactions between particles and with their surrounding environment. This allows for the simulation of complex systems where the behavior of each particle is important.

## 2. Why is FORTRAN 90 commonly used for implementing DEM simulations?

FORTRAN 90 is a high-level programming language with a long history in scientific computing. It is known for its efficiency and speed, making it a popular choice for implementing DEM simulations that involve large numbers of particles and complex calculations. Additionally, FORTRAN 90 has built-in array operations and supports parallel programming, which are both essential for efficient implementation of DEM algorithms.

## 3. How does DEM handle particle collisions?

In DEM simulations, particle collisions are modeled using contact detection algorithms and contact models. These algorithms determine when particles come into contact based on their positions and velocities, and the contact models calculate the forces that act on the particles during the collision. This allows for a realistic representation of particle interactions, including friction and restitution.

## 4. Can DEM be used to simulate different types of particles?

Yes, DEM can be used to simulate a wide range of particle types, including rigid and deformable particles, as well as particles with different shapes and sizes. The behavior of each particle is defined by its material properties and the contact models used in the simulation. This allows for the study of various systems, such as granular materials, powders, and biomaterials.

## 5. What are some limitations of using DEM for particle collisions?

While DEM is a powerful tool for simulating particle collisions, it also has some limitations. One limitation is that it does not take into account the effects of fluid or gas flow, which can be important in certain systems. Additionally, DEM simulations can be computationally expensive, especially when simulating large numbers of particles or complex systems. Finally, the accuracy of DEM results can also be affected by the choice of contact models and parameters used in the simulation.

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