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If I understand correctly, particles do not have a particular position as long as you don't observe them. With a certain equation, we can draw a cloud of probabilities which describes how likely the particle is to be at any location at any time. As I heard, this theory of quantum physics has proven itself to be extremely effective.

More than once, I had discussions with friends about whether or not our universe is purely deterministic or if it contains randomness. I am more on the deterministic side, and a argument that I often face is that quantum physics theory implies the existence of randomness.

On the surface, it seems to me like I can compare quantum physic's probabilistic nature to that of a coin toss. Probability theory is extremely effective to predict the distribution the multiple results of many throws will respect, even though these events have a deterministic nature.

Could it be that the same thing is happening with quantum physic?

Could it be that some deterministic processus is what generate the probabilistic distribution that lies within quantum physic?

Or is there some aspect of the theory I fail to understand?