1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data Living cells actively “pump” positive sodium ions (Na+) from inside the cell to outside the cell. It’s called pumping because it requires work to move the ions from the negatively charged inner surface of the cell membrane to the positively charged outer surface. It is estimated that as much as 20% of the energy we consume in a resting state is used in this sodium pumping. The potential difference across the membrane is 0.070V, and the membrane is 0.10μm thick. a.) Which is at higher potential, the inside or outside of the membrane? b.) How much work has to be done to move one sodium ion from inside the membrane to outside? c.) If the thickness of the membrane were doubled, how much work would it require to pump out one sodium ion? d.) Assuming the E field is constant in the membrane, what is the magnitude and direction of the E field between the inside and outside of the membrane? 2. Relevant equations None Given 3. The attempt at a solution I have attempted this but I am having trouble starting out correctly. Like which is the proper equation to use...my general understanding is not jump starting this problem.