# What is Ions: Definition and 343 Discussions

An ion () is a particle, atom or molecule with a net electrical charge.
The charge of the electron is considered negative by convention. The negative charge of an ion is equal and opposite to charged proton(s) considered positive by convention. The net charge of an ion is non-zero due to its total number of electrons being unequal to its total number of protons.
A cation is a positively charged ion with fewer electrons than protons while an anion is negatively charged with more electrons than protons. Because of their opposite electric charges, cations and anions attract each other and readily form ionic compounds.
Ions consisting of only a single atom are termed atomic or monatomic ions, while two or more atoms form molecular ions or polyatomic ions. In the case of physical ionization in a fluid (gas or liquid), "ion pairs" are created by spontaneous molecule collisions, where each generated pair consists of a free electron and a positive ion. Ions are also created by chemical interactions, such as the dissolution of a salt in liquids, or by other means, such as passing a direct current through a conducting solution, dissolving an anode via ionization.

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1. ### Engineering Calculate the bonding energy of two ions

1.) So first I differentiate and set it equal to 0 and get: $$\frac{A}{r^2} -\frac{Bn}{r^{n-1}} = 0$$ 2.) When solving for r, I'm not quite sure how to take away the exponent so I get up to the second to last step: $$r^{n-3} = \frac{Bn}{A}$$ Would it be: $$r = \sqrt[n-3]{\frac{Bn}{A}}$$ ...

3. ### A How making the ions leave the cavity in a ion sources

Ion sources are devices that allow creating ion beams (e.g. argon ions) and to project them outside the device, for example to be further processed by a particle accelerator, or to irradiate materials or biological tissues etc. The ions are usually created by a plasma inside a cavity filled...
4. ### Stripping ions from exchange resin

I want to strip the hydrogen ion from a cation exchange resin. Would it be feasible to do this using hot water? I've tried using water at somewhere above 130 degrees Fahrenheit I believe, but I didn't see any immediate decrease in pH. I believe the resin uses polystyrene sulfonate. Should I use...
5. ### I Destat Apparatus - Exploring The Physics Behind It

I hope you all have a wonderful day, Some time ago, I bought a device that is supposed to eliminate static charge on my vinyl records (which aids to the overall sound quality). I was sitting on the couch and having a deep thought, as me myself have no professional background in physics, I...
6. ### How do plasma membranes prevent ions from diffusing?

Hi everyone Explanations of diffusion that I've seen mention that the polarity of phospholipid layer stops ions from diffusing without specifying how. I'm assuming that ions with the same polarity as the membrane will be repelled. Would it be correct to say that ions with the opposite...
7. ### Calculating Gamma, L, R1,2 for Excited Ions

For part b) Gamma is the cavity loss coefficient, L is the length of the rod, R1,2 are the reflectivities. I am not sure how to find the number of ions in the excited state since I don't know the number of ions in the ground state.
8. ### B How trapped ions can be used to make Atomic clocks?

Can someone explain me conceptually how one can use trapped ions to make atomic clocks? My basic understanding of trapped ions is, we can think of an ionized atom which is controlled by electric and magnetic fields. But i am wondering how can one build an atomic clock using trapped ions.
9. ### Explanation of the spectrochemical series of transition metal ions

The spectrochemical series of metals, under the circumstances that same ligands are used and that it is in an octahedral coordination, is given by: Mn2+ < Ni2+ < Co2+ < Fe2+ < V2+ < Fe3+ < V3+ < Co3+ < Mn4+ < Mo3+ < Rh3+ < Ru3+ < Pd4+ < Ir3+ < Pt4+ When I was skimming through a textbook to...
10. ### Magnetic mirror concept -- electrons vs ions

I am reading a book on fusion and just went over a paragraph of magnetic mirror confinement. What I want to understand is this. So all charged particles gyrate around magnetic field lines and if they have also a velocity parallel to the field they form helical paths. The gyroradius is...
11. ### I Calculating t for H Ions on W Target @2.5 MeV & 100µA F=10^16

Hi everyone, How to calculate time of irradiation (t) if you know: Type of ions: H Target material: W Ion energy: 2.5 MeV Ion current: 100 µA Ion fluence: 10^16 ions/cm^2 Thank you!
12. ### Molarity of Ions in a solution

Hi, I have a problem which I have attempted to solve several times without success and i am at a loss to know where I am going wrong. The problem is .. If 10.0 g of potassium sulfite is dissolved in water to make 200.0 mL of solution, then what is the molar concentration of potassium ions in...
13. ### To add more ions, but not get any precipitate?

Here's an image of the equilibrium I'm not sure how that's possible, but I'm thinking maybe I could remove Cl- ion so that the Ag+ ions don't have much to combine with.
14. ### What I do not understand about mass spectrometers

I try to do my assignment which is based on mass spectrometer entirely. The mass spectrometer i am working on has these parts below: 1.Accelerator region 2.Velocity selector region 3.Spectrometer The elements i am working on are isotopes of the same element and they all enter the accelerator...
15. ### A Does Adding or Removing an Electron Change a Helium-3 Atom to a Boson?

In the theory of superfluidity, ##^{4}##He atoms are seen as weakly interacting pointlike bosons, with an integer total spin. Does a ##^3##He atom also become a boson if I add or remove one electron to give ##^3##He##^+## or ##^3##He##^-## ? I'm trying to calculate the ground state wave...
16. ### Coulomb's Law problem: Force of attraction between the two singly charged ions

In a salt crystal, the distance between adjacent sodium and chloride ions is 2.82×10^−10m. What is the force of attraction between the two singly charged ions?
17. ### Solving Cross Section Confusion: Adding Positive and Negative Ions

ik that i have to add the positive and negative ions but the cross section (surface) confuses me how do i resolve this?
18. ### Chemistry Calculating the bonding energy between two ions

I seem to be having problems with part two in general, but here's my solution. Attractive force: ##F_{A}=\dfrac {k\left( 2\right) \left( -2\right) }{r^{2}}=\dfrac {-4k}{r^{2}} ## ##E_{A}=-\int ^{r}_{\infty }F_{A}\cdot dr ## ##\begin{aligned}E_{A}=\int ^{r}_{\infty }\dfrac {4k}{r^{2}}dr\\...
19. ### Chemistry Calculating Number of Moles & Ions in CaCI2

Here is my work** Can someone please tell me if this is correct? mass = 27.8 g CaCI2 Number of CaCI2 in the compound = (unknown) Number of CI- ions in the compound = (unknown) Number of moles = mass/molar mass To find the number of moles of CaCI2 first you find the molar mass of the compound. 1...
20. ### Solving the Mystery: Exploring E << m Condition for Carbon 12 Ions

Clarification: The statement in the title is actually from the solution to the homework question, as given by the textbook (you can see the whole thing below under "Textbook solution"). The solution doesn't explain everything, which is where my confusion comes from. Usually in my classes we...
21. ### NASA hypothetical engine w/ relativistic ions

Does this violate conservation of momentum or some other law? It claims to take advantage relativistic mass increases to achieve propulsion https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20190029657.pdf
22. ### Chemistry Determining the concentration of ions in ppm

I'm a little confused by a basic statement in a paper I am reading. It says that calcium chloride (1 M) and sodium carbonate (1 M) i.e. equimolar, have "a predetermined concentration of 3500 ppm of Ca2+"... I understand that the mixing of these two will cause a precipitation reaction, but...
23. ### I E- & Ions Deflection by Earth's Magnetic Field

Do solar wind electrons turn left and positively charged ions turn right if they are interacting weakly due to long distance with Earth's magnetic field and fail to complete a loop for the electrons that are on the left of Earth and ions on the right? I assume electrons on the right and ions on...
24. ### Path diameter difference of two singly-charged ions in a magnetic field

M1(50,000)/q (0.4) - M2(50,000)/q (0.4) = 0.025 Is there a special charge for singly charged ions?
25. ### A Negative Hydrogen Ions in Cyclotrons and elsewhere

Negative Hydrogen Ions in Cyclotrons and elsewhere I was vaguely aware that negative hydrogen ions are used in some cyclotrons and this improves beam current. I've been thinking about this recently after noting that hydrogen is actually quite electronegative in comparison to most metals (just...
26. ### A way to separate the components of a solution?

Hi all, A solution contains ions, positive and negative ones (i.e k+ cl-). Is there a simple but passive way (without adding any kind of energy) to separate by exemple the potassium ions from the solution? (IMHO, I do not think so)
27. ### Mass/Charge Ratio of Ions: How Much Difference?

How much difference is there between the mass/charge ratio of ions of the same element? Is it the same, or does it depend on other factors?
28. ### Have electrons been used to image electrons or ions?

I'm looking for images of electron or ion beams recorded (from the side) using electrons, for example with a transmission electron microscope. Does anybody have references to publications?
29. ### Solving Charge Across Plates of a Capacitor w/ Negative Ions

Homework Statement I have a material placed between parallel plates depleted of free electrons and contain negative ions. What would happen to the charge stored across the plates? Would it still be similar to placing a capacitor with a di-electric constant between them? Homework Equations Q=CV...
30. D

### Secondary ions entering a mass filter in Secondary Ion Mass Sprectrometry (SIMS)

Hello, I have a question about secondary ions entering a mass filter in Secondary Ion Mass Sprectrometry (SIMS). We know that secondary ions are sputtered from surface of studied sample. Those secondary ions are entering a mass filter which sort them out due to their mass/charge ratio. After...
31. ### Concentration of hydroxide ions

Homework Statement The hydroxide ion concentration in an aques H2CO3 solution is 4X10^{-4}M at 25°C OH- ion concentration in the solution is Homework Equations Ph=log(H+ or OH-) [/B]The Attempt at a Solution I calculated the PH of H+ in the solution which came to be 4.3979.Considering...
32. ### Question about metallic ions and a molecule

Cobalt(II) Copper(II) Copper(II) tetrachloro complex Chromate Vanadyl(V) (pervanadyl) Dichromate Can these metallic ions make up a certain molecule?
33. ### Coulombic force of repulsion/attraction between ions

Homework Statement The ionic radius of the Ca2+ ion is 0.106nm. The ionic radius of the O2- ion is 0.132nm. a.Calculate the coulomb force of repulsion between nearest neighbor O2- ions in CaO (which has the NaCl-type structure). b. Calculate the colombia force of repulsion between nearest...
34. ### Charges of ions in a mass spectrometer

Homework Statement In a mass spectrometer, a few 126C ions are deflected with a radius of 12.9 cm. The ions have a speed of 5.67*10^4 m/s when they enter the field. The magnetic field has a strength of 3.2*10^-2 T. The charge of these ions must be ... SOLUTION: We use the formula: i F=qvB =...
35. ### Ions passing through a parallel plate capacitor with a varying voltage

Consider the scenario Two parallel plates One ion particle (mass 1, charge +1) traveling parallel to the plates through the middle. Voltage of the plates is the same. As the ion travels between the plates the voltage on the plates ramps up, and the electric field between the plates remains...
36. ### Minimum force to separate two oppositely-charged ions

Homework Statement Part (d) is the bit I am having trouble doing (the question is in the attachment). Homework Equations Apart from what is shown, I also have to use F = dV(r) / dr The Attempt at a Solution For Part (b), I showed this by differentiating the potential energy and equating this...
37. ### Why do electrons collide with ions in a conductor

Homework Statement I am confused if whether the collisions in a conductor is because as the electric field pushes electrons through the material, they literally bump into the orbitals of the atoms because these atoms get in the way of the electron flow, or whether these collisions happen...
38. ### Distribution of ions in a cylindrical container

Homework Statement In a cylindrical container of radius ## R ## and height ## h \ll R ##, with long axis ## \hat{z} ##, in the presence of gravity acceleration ## \vec{g} = - g \vec{z} ## is contained a neutral ionized gas, whose ions can be described as material points with electric charge ##...
39. ### NaOH vs C2H5OH: Reason for Disassociation

If we put NaOH in water then it disassociates into ##OH^{-}## ions(hydroxyl ions) but if we put ##C_2H_5OH## in water it does not disassociates into ##OH^{-}## ions. What is the reason that ##NaOH## disassociates into ##OH^{-}## ions(hydroxyl ions) whereas ##C_2H_5OH## does not disassociate...
40. ### Hydrogen ions moving through a battery

Homework Statement In one type of battery, the current is carried by hydrogen ions moving through the liquid. If 1A is flowing through the battery, how long will it take for 1 mole of hydrogen ions to move through the battery? 1 mole of protons = 6.0 x 1023 protons qp = 1.6022 x 10-19 C...
41. ### Can charged baryons flow induce magnetic field?

We all think that electric current is the electrons flow without mass transfer in conductor, i.e. charged lepton flow. But charged baryons flow can also deemed as "electric" current, e.g. ionic current. My question is that charged baryons flow can induce magnetic field? Same amperes, then same B...
42. ### Concentration of Ions at Equilibrium

Homework Statement Find the concentrations of all ions in the solution at equilibrium after 0.213 L of 0.433 M aqueous Cu(NO3)2 solution is mixed with 0.213 L of 0.120 M KOH solution. Ksp for Cu(OH)2 is 1.1E-15. Homework Equations n=m/M [Cu][OH]^2 = Ksp .. ?The Attempt at a Solution ok so for...
43. ### Radial force on charged particle in beam of positive ions

Homework Statement Many experiments in physics call for a beam of charged particles. The stability and “optics” of charged-particle beams are influenced by the electric and magnetic forces that the individual charged particles in the beam exert on one another. Consider a beam of positively...
44. ### Chemistry Measuring the Mass & Electric Charge of Molecules

Homework Statement Hi! So I stumbled upon this simple "plug n' play" exercise in my Physics textbook. Basically it gives you certain molecules/atoms, and tells you to measure the Electric Charge, and its Mass. Pretty simple, but I hit upon some hickups. Anyway, let's get to it: Find the...
45. ### Atomic Numbers for Polyatomic Ions

In the Debye-Huckle Equation there are a few z terms referring to atomic number. But what if the ion is polyatomic? Is it just the sum of the atomic numbers or is there something else that needs to be used? Never mind, it's the charge number not the atomic number.
46. ### Water molecules effect on Hydrogen bonds in precipitation

Cheers everyone. Can the amount of water molecules added to a solution impact the formation of a salt with its ions mainly bonded through hydrogen bonds with electrostatic like behaviour? Let me give Some background to the question first: I am studying the precipitation of Phosphorous(P) as...
47. D

### Directional electron cloud/separating ions from free electrons

If you were sending microwaves one direction to ionize a gas, would you be able to pull or separate the atoms from these directionalized electrons? Say you had a magnetic coil with a strong e field pulling the atoms one way while the microwaves were trying to push the electrons the other way-is...
48. ### Creating and Storing Stable Ions: Is it Possible?

Hello, I have been wondering if it is possible to create and store stable ions, is it? Thanks.
49. B

### Electric field generated by ions in a box

Homework Statement A ionized gas (overall neutral) is in a cylindrical box with radius ##R## and ##h<<R##, with is main axis along ##\hat{z}## (there is acceleration of gravity ##\vec{g}=-g \hat{z}##). The ions are points: some of mass ##M## and charge ##q>0## (heavy positive ions) and some of...
50. B

### What is the minimum number of H+ ions required during ATP production?

how many minimum number of H+ ions are required during ATP production in citric acid cycle (CAC)?