I saw an old interview with Roger Penrose where at one point he was talking about the degree of organization the universe exhibited at it's initial state. He said the second law of thermodynamics tells us as time passes the universe is becoming more disorderly, which means if we were to go back in time the universe would become more and more ordered/organized. He said the degree of organization the universe was in was so special that the mathematical figure representing/describing it would be at least 10^123. Can someone please explain to me how he came up with this figure. It's a very large number obviously. How does this large number represent degree of order? Link to the video (begin at 4:58): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pEIj9zcLzp0 His published paper: accelconf.web.cern.ch/accel...nf/e06/PAPERS/THESPA01.PDF In the opening of this paper he mentions initial state numerous times. Later on he says this though: "To deal with a spatially infinite universe, I shall assume that we need consider only, say, that comoving portion of the universe that intersects our past light cone. This contains something of the order of 10^80 baryons." What time in the universes' history would the "portion of the universe that intersects our past light cone" be? Is he talking about present time? If not, when?