In special relativity, observers can disagree on the order of events - if Alice thinks events A, B and C are simultaneous, Bob can think A happened before B which happened before C, and Carlos thinks C happened before B which happened before A - provided A, B and C are not causally connected, of...
Maxwell's demon measures the position and velocity of the particle. How can it do that when it violates the uncertainty principle? Does that mean uncertainty principle is unavoidable otherwise we will violate II law of thermodynamics as in the case of Maxwell's demon?
How did you find PF?: random Brownian motion
Is randomness real or is it simply defined as such due to our inability to perceive hyper complex order? Randomness is a troublesome word. I'd feel better if I knew it was an objective phenomenon and not merely a placeholder description of...
I am a biology undergraduate interested in abiogenesis.
The entropic explanation for the origin of life is that life is allowed to exist because it increases universal entropy.
I am curious about how far we can take this theory down.
How can you explain the emergence of atoms and atomic...
Previous of this problem, there was another problem. that is "What is the change in Temperature of van der Waals gas in free expansion?".
I got them.
It was
C_V dT= -aN^2/V^2 dV
Then, I got
T=T0-aN^2/2VC_V
So i knew that the Temperature is decreased by free expansion in adiabatic process.
Then I...
I'm not sure about my proof. So please check my step. I used log as a natural log(ln).
Specially, I'm not sure about "d/dt=dρ/dt d/dρ=i/ħ [ρ, H] d/dρ" in the second line. and matrix can differentiate the other matrix? (d/dρ (dρ lnρ))
Attempt at a Solution:
Heat Absorbed By The System
By the first law of thermodynamics,
dU = dQ + dW
The system is of fixed volume and therefore mechanically isolated.
dW = 0
Therefore
dQ = dU
The change of energy of the system equals the change of energy of the gas plus the change of energy...
The von Neumann entropy for an observable can be written ##s=-\sum\lambda\log\lambda##, where the ##\lambda##'s are its eigenvalues. So suppose you have two different pvm observables, say ##A## and ##B##, that both represent the same resolution of the identity, but simply have different...
I was studying statistical mechanics when I came to know about the Boltzmann's entropy relation, ##S = k_B\ln Ω##.
The book mentions ##Ω## as the 'thermodynamic probability'. But, even after reading, I can't understand what it means. I know that in a set of ##Ω_0## different accessible states...
In heat engine we define a heat source from where heat is transferred to the system, we say that heat source has a temperature ##T_h## , When we define a Carnot heat engine, the first process we have is an isothermal expansion and we say heat has to come in system through this process and here...
According to Everett-interpretation or many world interpretation of quantum mechanics, each decision an observer makes, the world splits into two parallel universes, let’s say an observer in some point in Spacetime is tests the Schrödinger’s cat experiment, in one branch of the universe the cat...
for a)##\Delta S=\mp \int_{T_i}^{T_0}\frac{C(T)}{T}dT## and ##\Delta S_{th}=\int_{T_i}^{T_0}\frac{dQ}{T_0}dT## so ##S_{univ}=\Delta S_{th}+\Delta S##.
What is ##dQ## equal to ? I don't know how to answer question b).
Thank you for your help.
If you take a system with fixed entropy S0 and let it evolve, it reachs equilibrium. Let Ueq be the energy of the system at equilibrium.
Now take the same system with fixed energy U=Ueq (S is not fixed anymore), how do you know that the equilibrium reached is the same as before, that means with...
Hi.
Processes involving a friction force whose direction somehow depends on the direction of the velocity, such as ##\vec{F}=-\mu\cdot\vec{v}##, aren't symmetric with respect to time reversal. If you play it backwards, this force would be accelerating.
On the other hand, friction dissipates...
Problem Statement: 1 kg of water at 273 K is brought into contact with a heat reservoir at 373 K. When the water has reached 373 K, what is the entropy change of the water, of the heat reservoir, and of the universe?
Relevant Equations: dS=Cp*(dT/T)-nR*(dP/P)
dS=Cv*(dT/T)+nR*(dV/V)
I am...
In a recent study (https://phys.org/news/2018-08-flaw-emergent-gravity.html) it has been discovered an important flaw in Emergent/Entropic Gravity because it has been discovered that holographic screens cannot behave according to thermodynamics...
But then, doesn't this also invalidate...
The multiplicity of states for a particle in a box is proportional to the product of the volume of the box and the surface area of momentum space.
$$ \Omega = V_{volume}V_{momentum}$$
The surface area in momentum space is given by the equation:
$$p^{2}_{x}+ {p}^{2}_{y}+{p}^{2}_{z} =...
Although I've read many papers that propose a relation between action and entropy, I've been told that there is no generally accepted relation in physics.
But how/why are these concepts unrelated?
What about nobel laureate Frank Wilczek? He proposes that entropy and action are closely related...
Hi,
consider an adiabatic irreversible process carrying a thermodynamic system from initial state A to final state B: this process is accompanied by a positive change in system entropy (call it ##S_g##). Then consider a reversible process between the same initial and final system state. Such...
I tried following:
$$ dS_{\text{total}} = |\frac{dQ}{T_c}| |\frac{dQ}{T_H}| $$
where ## T_h ## is temperature of hot water and ## T_c ## is temperature of cold water. Coefficient for water wasn't provided in the assignment so i used following value c = 4190 J/kgK.
$$ dS_{\text{total}} =...
Help!
Hi, I need
in the secodn law of thermodynamic, we have the ENTROPY "S".
Well, I need help for this:
We have dS ≈ dQ
Then we have dS = λ *dQ
where we have λ = λ (T, ... )
I have to demostrate that :
λ = 1/T , where T = temperature.
Thanks for the advices and help!
Hey guys, so I am reading this book and on pages 89-90, the author says:
"Increasing temperature correspond to a decreasing slope on Entropy vs Energy graph", then a sample graph is provided, and both in that graph and in the numerical analysis given in page 87 the slope is observed to be an...
i dont really understand why S of the universe must be always positive,i know that only reversible process have constant entropy but why real proceses always increase S in the universe?
sorry for bad english im not from USA or UK
Homework Statement
A gas sample containing 3.00 moles of Helium gas undergoes a state change from 30 degrees celsius and 25.0 L to 45 degrees celsius and 15.0 L. What is the entropy change for the gas (ideal gas)? For He, Cp = 20.8 J/k*mol
Homework Equations
ΔS = Cv*ln(Tf/Ti) + nR*ln(Vf/Vi) =...
Hi everyone, I have a few questions I'd like to ask regarding what I have read/heard about these two definitions of entropy. I also believe that I have some misconceptions about entropy and as such I'll write out what I know while asking the questions in the hope someone can correct me. Thanks...
There are two aspects of uncertainty
(a) how far different from the situation where all possibilities are of equal probability
(b) how spread out the values are.
In discussions about (Shannon) entropy and information, the first aspect is emphasized, whereas in discussions about the standard...
1. Homework Statement
if a rigid adiabatic container has a fan inside that provides 15000 j of work to an ideal gas inside the container,
does the change in entropy would be the same as if 15000 j of heat are provided to the same rigid container (removing the insulation)?
2. Relevant...
My background is that I'm an applied mathematician and engineer, self-taught in GR and QFT. It's an old idea, in some dozen or so SciFi books. But I'm looking for a mathematical framework for handling it. The second law of thermodynamics, that entropy always increases in a closed system, can be...