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Anyway, my question is regarding the energy required for an orbiting body to escape orbit? I understand the formula of escape velocity where the kinetic energy exceeds the gravitational energy. However, I'm wondering how sensitive that value is and if there is a basic method of calculating it?

For example, if a very small meteor impacted the Earth, it is not going to provide Earth with enough kinetic energy to escape orbit. So, I am wondering exactly how the needed value is determined when you break it down to infinitesimal increments?