My current level of knowledge is based on Physics I and my own readings, so bear with me if this is something relatively simple that I'm overlooking... Anyway, my question is regarding the energy required for an orbiting body to escape orbit? I understand the formula of escape velocity where the kinetic energy exceeds the gravitational energy. However, I'm wondering how sensitive that value is and if there is a basic method of calculating it? For example, if a very small meteor impacted the Earth, it is not going to provide Earth with enough kinetic energy to escape orbit. So, I am wondering exactly how the needed value is determined when you break it down to infinitesimal increments?