Atmospheric escape is the loss of planetary atmospheric gases to outer space. A number of different mechanisms can be responsible for atmospheric escape; these processes can be divided into thermal escape, non-thermal (or suprathermal) escape, and impact erosion. The relative importance of each loss process depends on the planet's escape velocity, its atmosphere composition, and its distance from its star. Escape occurs when molecular kinetic energy overcomes gravitational energy; in other words, a molecule can escape when it is moving faster than the escape velocity of its planet. Categorizing the rate of atmospheric escape in exoplanets is necessary to determining whether an atmosphere persists, and so the exoplanet's habitability and likelihood of life.
What could be most sensible parametre for atmospheric escape excluding higher order (and nonlinear!) effects?
Black body radiation is proportional to fourth power of temperature. Therefore temperature of black body is proportional to 4th root of incident radiation.
Radiation from a point source...
Since space is curved within the Earth's gravitational field, every body that moves there will follow the curvature of space no matter what speed it has, so what will its trajectory be, how will it be straight, only if the launch is made absolutely vertically towards sea level? Only then can it...
Hello everyone,
Imagine the following situation:
You are inside the events horizon of a static black hole (called BH1)
Now, due to the bended space-time, your future points to be inside the event horizon until eternity (You will never be outside)
Now, a second static black hole (BH2)...
I am really lost on how to deal with this. Since this is an elliptic orbit, the mechanical energy is negative. For the rocket to escape orbit, we have to get the mechanical energy to be equal to or greater than zero. I thought at first that it would escape in the perigee, since that's where the...
One of the leading theories of physics is that forces are mediated by virtual particles.
Well, it seems as though these virtual particles can escape a black hole. Why is that?
I have a difficulty when making the energy-conservation-equation for the second step.
When making the equation, we need to know the exact position (measured from the sun) of the rocket after it is freed from the Earth gravitation.
But, where exactly does the rocket free from Earth...
I'm pretty confused by this but I have a few thoughts. Since the sun takes up most of the mass of the solar system, I was thinking maybe I'm really looking for the escape velocity of the sun? So I would use the mass of the sun for M and the radius of the sun for r. My other thought was to add up...
Googleing this question yields answers that don't really seem to address the core of my question. I apologize if I just haven't been able to see how answers are applicable, and would greatly appreciate any insight.
Imagine a universe consisting of only our sun. no planets, no galaxies...
He explain escape velocity in example where rocket goes straight up,isnt escacpe velocity ,velocity where centrifugal forces and gravity are equal,so refers only when rocket going in circle/orbit?
Can rocket really leave Earth in straight line like he show in video once reach this velocity and...
If:
Gravity propagates via "particles" of gravity, and
The particles of gravity are massless and so move at the speed of light
then how can the gravity particles escape from a black hole? Aren't they as trapped as the photons? It seems as if black holes should present no gravitational field...
Hi ! I ask you two questions:
1- If hydrogen escapes from the Earth's atmosphere as it happens, because if there are anaerobic bacteria that produce hydrogen naturally among some other living beings, because among the thousands and millions of years that life has been on earth, hydrogen was...
The Sub Photon Sphere Escape (SPSE) Game
Game Board:
Vast Empty Space
Game Pieces:
##\space## 1) A large perfect Schwarzschild black hole
##\space## 2) A Carrier/Trigger. This is a massless device that sets the Player Device into a selected position and velocity and then triggers it...
So Ekf-Eki+Epf-Epi=0. I understand that the final potential energy is 0 (distance away approaches infinity), but don't get why the final kinetic energy becomes 0. If the final kinetic energy was 0, wouldn't that mean the object no longer has any velocity and would start being effected by the...
Can electromagnetic radiation escape from the event horizon of a Black Hole if the wavelength is long enough?
What if a Black Hole contains electric charge, hypothetically supposing we dumped a large number of protons into it? Electric charge is mediated by the electromagnetic force. So the...
I was surprised to read that the formula for escape velocity — at least for a spherical mass like the Earth — is the same in relativity as it is in classical physics:
v_e = (2GM/r)^{1/2}
I'm wondering if someone can give me a good source for deriving this. (I assume one takes a radial...
1. The satellite would be in a jovian-synchronous orbit,
Rearranging the formula for the orbital period in terms of r, since T^2 is proportional to r^3:
T^2=4π^2r^3/GM which becomes r^3=(GM/4π^2) T^2
M(mass of Jupiter)=1.89 x 10^27
G=6.67*10^-11 m^3kg^-1s^-2
T=9 hours and 55 minutes =...
In the last step of the derivation of escape velocity, the two sides of the equation seem to have opposite signs.
$$-1/2mv_0^2=-mgR_e^2\,\lim_{r\to\infty}(1/r-1/R_e)$$
$$-1/2mv_0^2=mgR_e^2 \frac{1}{R_e}$$
Since the mass and the square of the velocity are positive, the left side of the equation...
The work function of a metal is typically several eV. When we transmit electricity through cables of some 10-100kV, how come the electrons not having enough energy to escape from the metal?
If you derive the equation for orbital velocity you get
\begin{equation}
v_{orbit} = \sqrt{\frac{GM}{R}}
\end{equation}
and for escape velocity you get
\begin{equation}
v_{escape} = \sqrt{\frac{2GM}{R}}=\sqrt{2}\,v_{orbit}
\end{equation}
I'm wondering if there is a logical/geometrical...
We have 2 different formulas for escape velocity. and . If we look at the first formula we see that escape velocity is inversely proportional to the square root of Radius of Earth. While in the second formula, escape velocity is directly proportional to the square root of Radius of Earth.
We...
Below is the work I've attempted. I used 2 PE b'c there were 2 point charges, and only one KE b'c only the proton is moving. The final equation in case it's hard to see is V(esc) = sqrt (4kQq / mr).
I'm not sure if I did it right. Did I set up this equation right? and I am also not sure what...
I was learning GR and I got to the point where I learned about worldlines and their structure within a Schwarzschild black hole, that space-time itself is curved so that all future worldlines from an event point inward. Since a massive object cannot exert gravity into its past, how does the...
I really cannot understand where this is going wrong...
Plugging in the constants, I get
vescape=Sqrt(2(6.67x10^-11)(5.976x10^24kg)/6378).
(6.67x10^-11)(5.976x10^24kg) gives me 3.99x10^14, and multiplied by 2 gives me 7.97x10^14.
7.97x10^14/6378=1.25x10^11.
The square root of 1.25x10^11 would...
The is a question about gravitational time dilation and escape velocity. As others have pointed out, you may use escape velocity to calculate gravitational time dilation in a gravitational field. (Interestingly, you can't use gravity to calculate gravitational time dilation, which makes...
Homework Statement: Jack can jump upwards a distance 1.4 meters when he is on the surface of the Earth. What is his initial velocity when he jumps?
Most of the time, however, Jack is in space. He is an asteroid miner: he looks for asteroids made out of useful metals. His job involves landing on...
Is it possible to derive escape velocity say using momentum and force balance considerations? or using angular momentum consideration?
Namely, any other approach then energy consideration that utilizes gravitation potential energy and kinetic energy?
e.g., at the moment I'm watching The Maltese Falcon, and finding it every bit as boring as 2001, A Space Oddysey. Any interest in a thread devoted to "critically acclaimed" movies that you want your money back when you see them for free in "The Nam," like Easy Rider? I did waste a perfectly...
Hi, I'm reading Lamarsh's book "Introduction to nuclear reactor theory" and in chapter 7 he discusses the influence of temperature on the resonance escape probability. He states that after an increase in Temperature, as a consequence of Doppler broadening, the microscopic absorption cross...
we all know escape velocity is a velocity in which a body can escape orbit around the Earth and fly off into space. this needs to happen in space our just out of our atmosphere, due to drag that could bring an object back into orbit and cause it's velocity to degrade to a point where it would...
Hi!
I have a question about escape velocity. If a planet is bigger and have a greater escape velocity than another planet. Do this effect the density of the bigger planet in any way? Or do we have to know the mass of the bigger planet to know if the density is larger or lower for this planet?
Hey there,
If body 1, mass M1 has escape velocity V_e1 = (2GM1/r)**.5 but M2 is more massive than M1 is this relation still valid? In this case, the subordinate body really isn't the subordinate body so does this still hold? And r (distance b/t the two) changes not only due to the motion of M2...
Hello, all -
A question has come back to tickle my brain.
Could a vehicle with less than 1G of thrust manage to escape the Earth's gravity well?
I'm thinking something like Space X's Falcon 9. As it landed, with just a little more thrust, it could go back up again, I would guess. So, if it...
Hello
When one calculates the speed of liberation of an object with respect to a star, one takes into account the force exerted by the star on the object. But not the force exerted by the object on the star. For small objects, this is valid. But what is the speed of release of a 1000 kg rocket...
You are stuck in a circular area with a fence around it, while there is a velociraptor out there. At least he can't get in. You can pass through the fence anywhere you want though. And if you can reach the perimeter before the velociraptor reaches you, you can escape. Unfortunately the...
In simplified terms Hawking Radiation exists, because in the vacuum surrounding a black hole these subatomic-particle-pairs pop into existence and one of these particles manages to escape from the black hole. This stream of escaping particles is called Hawking Radiation, right?(Please correct...
This is just a reality that I have stumbled upon that I'm sure was well-known, but I still found it interesting. I apologize if this is second-nature to physics experts.
I was responding to a post on a different thread that claimed you could make a tunnel around the Earth and if you sent a...
I am solving a problem where I need to decide if an asteroids velocity is high enough to escape the planets gravitational pull. The way I did it was use conservation of energy and angular momentum to find an expression for the radial velocity and show that it remains positive as r tends to...
Homework Statement
What is the escape speed of an electron launched from the surface of a 1.0-cm-diameter glass sphere that has been charged to 10nC?
Homework Equations
Given:
d= 1.0cm
r= 0.05cm= 0.0005m
q1 = 10nC = 10 x 10-9 (sphere)
q2 = -1.6 x 10-19 (electron)
Equation:
U = (kq1q2)/r
KE=...
Homework Statement
(a) What is the escape speed from the sun for an object in the Earth's orbit (of orbital radius R) but
far from the Earth? (b) If an object already has a speed equal to the Earth's orbital speed, what
additional speed must it be given to escape as in (a)? (c) Suppose an...
Homework Statement
Homework Equations
E=hc/lamda
The Attempt at a Solution
I can get the amount of energy incident on the surface (3%of Intensity×Area)
What will be the energy required to make 1 electron escape?
(4.5eV+hc/250nm )?
Then I divide total energy by energy to make 1 electron...
If you had two masses, m_{1} and m_{2}, and you released them in space infinitely far apart, their kinetic energies would satisfy \frac{1}{2}m_{1}v_{1}^2+\frac{1}{2}m_{2}v_{2}^2=\frac{Gm_{1}m_{2}}{r} if they met with a distance r between their centres of mass. This equation therefore tells you...
Homework Statement
solve for escape velocity from Earth's surface
Homework Equations
just either use the line integral, and the tangential term disappears, or just use the energy equations
The Attempt at a Solution
I've solved it, but I'm having some trouble just coming to grips with this...