Hi, I was wondering whether anyone can help with a question I have about the forces acting on a car wheel and the forces the wheel induces on the ground surface. The way I understand it, a car wheel traveling on a flat surface has the following forces acting on it: -vertical force due to the weight of the car (acts at centre?) -a torque applied by the engine at the axle -a horizontal force in the direction of travel (is this separate to the torque or just a component of it?) I was not sure how these forces acting on the wheel can be translated to forces at the ground-wheel interface. I know there will be a horizontal force in the opposite direction of travel, and a possibly eccentric vertical force acting on the ground. Is there also a torque? Or is this completely incorrect? I have included an image of what my understanding is. Any help would be greatly appreciated.