# Wheel Definition and 35 Discussions

In its primitive form, a wheel is a circular block of a hard and durable material at whose center has been bored a hole through which is placed an axle bearing about which the wheel rotates when torque is applied to the wheel about its axis. The wheel and axle assembly can be considered one of the six simple machines. When placed vertically under a load-bearing platform or case, the wheel turning on the horizontal axle makes it possible to transport heavy loads. This arrangement is the main topic of this article, but there are many other applications of a wheel addressed in the corresponding articles: when placed horizontally, the wheel turning on its vertical axle provides the spinning motion used to shape materials (e.g. a potter's wheel); when mounted on a column connected to a rudder or to the steering mechanism of a wheeled vehicle, it can be used to control the direction of a vessel or vehicle (e.g. a ship's wheel or steering wheel); when connected to a crank or engine, a wheel can store, release, or transmit energy (e.g. the flywheel). A wheel and axle with force applied to create torque at one radius can translate this to a different force at a different radius, also with a different linear velocity.

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1. ### B Derivation of Wheel Relationship Formulas

Hello, Here in this thread I will derive formulas for relation between two wheels, either teethed (e.g. gears) or non-teethed. In wheel relationship, we have three cases: Two wheels at the same axle Two wheels intersected in parallel (meshed) Two wheels connected by a belt We will examine...
2. ### Mechanics of a front wheel on a bicycle

I am working on a project where I am supposed to find some ways to get constraints on some of the components (rim, hub and spokes) to use these for parametrization. So far I have thought that the constraint for the rim is that it can't buckle from the pre tension of the spokes (here I am...
3. ### B Axle stress

If I were to have a theoretical car with 4 motors controlling the 4 wheels(each with a radius of 5 in and a width of 1 in) and the car was 100 pounds, how much stress would be exerted back on to each motor?
4. ### Torque on a DC motor spinning a wheel horizontally

I need a 12v DC with appropriate torque. In my design, the axle of the motor would be pointed straight in the air and I want to affix a wheel to it and have the wheel spin flat, sort of like a pottery wheel sort of design. I know what the wheel is made of, its dimensions and approximate weight...
5. ### Applying a force in a wheel bicycle

Homework Statement We have a bicycle and lift the front wheel. And with the hand we apply a force of 10 N down and we turn the wheel. The wheel is 26 inches in diameter and weighs 1.5 kg. Find the angular acceleration, the torque of the net force and the angular velocity after a lap. Homework...
6. ### B Why do chains on tires provide more traction in the snow?

Wouldn't the chain easily get caught on a rock or something? And how does metal provide more traction than rubber wheels?
7. ### Spoke card oscillations

Homework Statement A thin card produces a musical note when it is held lightly against the spokes of a rotating wheel. If the wheel has 32 spokes, how quickly must it rotate, in revolutions per minute, in order to produce the A above middle C (i.e. 440 Hz)? Homework Equations ω=2πƒ; ƒ=1/T...
8. ### I A perfectly stiff wheel cannot roll on a stiff floor?

I've been thinking about rolling motion, helped by @kuruman's excellent Insights article on the topic. A crucial insight from that article is that, when a wheel rolls along a flat surface, its axis of rotation is through the instantaneous point of contact with the ground, not through its axle...
9. ### Calculating gear ratios for a drivetrain

I'm trying to calculate the required gear sizes for the system shown below: The driven wheel is connected to a 600mm diameter bicycle wheel and the driver wheel connected to a 580 mm long lever arm which has a forward driving force of 40 N. I want to calculate the most efficient sizing of...
10. ### Can I use this solution? Angular motion

Homework Statement Starting from rest, a wheel has constant α = 3.0 rad/s2. During a certain 4.0 s interval, it turns through 120 rad. How much time did it take to reach that 4.0 s interval? ω0 = 0 α = 3.0 rad/s2 θf = 120 rad Homework Equations Δθ = ω0⋅t + ½αt2 The Attempt at a Solution 120...
11. ### Force required to move the wheels on a manual wheelchair

Hi, I'm trying to calculate the force required to move the wheel on a standard wheelchair from stand still and then consistently over a flat surface? I understand that this has to with the amount of weight that is trying to be moved, this being the weight of the user (approx. 68kg) and the...
12. ### Standards on wheel rim sizes?

Hi, I am designing a BLDC hub motor for an electric buggy/light vehicle. The wheels are sized as 13" (total outer diameter), 3" wide. A standard 8" wheel rim should fit in well, width of the rim would be 2.10". Are there any standards for rims dimensions: The contact area between rim and tire...
13. ### Do mecanum wheels move foward and sideways at the same rate?

Say you have a robot with mecanum wheels and move all the motors forward one rotation, and the robot moves forwards x cm. If you make the robot go sideways where each of the motors moves one rotation, does the robot move sideways x cm as well? Does it depend on the angle of the rollers on the...
14. ### Mass suspended from a pulley

Homework Statement A mass of 0.5kg is suspended from a flywheel, if the mass is released from rest and falls a distance of 0.5m in 1.5s calculate: A, the Linear acceleration of the mass B, the angular acceleration of the wheel C, the tension in the rope D, the friction torque. Known...
15. ### Car's weight shift with torque & angular momentum

I am having trouble visualizing which two tires of a car will be pushed down based on the angular momentum and torque of that car. Let's say if its angular momentum is point OUT while its torque is pointing UP in relations to the picture below. My guess is it's the two right wheels of the...
16. ### Angular acceleration of off balance wheel starting from rest

Homework Statement A 30 kg wheel has a center of mass 0.1 m left from the center of the wheel and radius of gyration KG = 0.15 m. Find the angular acceleration if the wheel is originally at rest. The radius of the wheel is 0.25m. Homework Equations I=mk^2 T=f*d M=I*a Fn acting bottom in Y...
17. ### Angular Velocity and Acceleration

Homework Statement If a bike wheel rotates 9.4 times while slowing down to a stop from an initial angular velocity of 8.1 rad/s, what is the magnitude of the angular acceleration in rad/s/s Homework Equations α = at / r α = ω / t α = Θ / t^2 ω = Θ / t ω = v / r Θ = ω t + 0.5 α t^2 v final = v...
18. ### Torque & Inertia calculation for a wheel

Hello! Before I start I want to apologize for my english and not having a scanner (lol). I'm calculating the torque needed to rotate a wheel* around its own axis from above, ( see the link at the end of post). I have quite an good idea to how I'm supposed to calculate it but I feel that...
19. ### Electromagnetic Induction Help Requested

Hi Experts, I'm doing an experiment of Electromagnetic Induction (producing current by changing magnetic field i.e. by circulating magnetic wheel of N52 Neodymium Magnets around copper coil), but what i found when the speed of wheel is HIGH, the Output Current is LOW (in range of .02...
20. ### What if I force a spinning wheel not to precede?

Hi, If we apply a torque to a spinning wheel such that the torque vector lies in the plane of the wheel, it will precede around the axis perpendicular to the angular momentum and the torque. What happens if the wheel is mounted such that rotation around this axis is absolutely impossible and...
21. ### Maximum force pulling a wheel without it slipping

Homework Statement We have a wheel with [mass = 1.5 kg] and a [radius = 0.06 m]. The static friction thing between the ground and the wheel is 0.3 . WIth how much force can we pull the string spooled around the wheel without the wheel slipping. The string ends at the top of the wheel and we...
22. ### Friction constant minimizing the duration of vertical motion

Homework Statement The mass of a car that acts on one wheel is 100 kg. The elasticity (spring) constant in the suspension system of that wheel is k = 10^4N/m. Design the strut (find the friction/resistance constant c) such that any vertical motion of the wheel (set up for example by going over...
23. ### How do I calculate forces acting on bicycle axle?

Hey everyone, I am trying to figure out how to calculate how much total force is being applied to the wheel axle on a bicycle. I'm focusing on the rear wheel for the moment. For the sake of simplicity, let's say that the bike and rider together weigh 100kg and that 60 percent of that is going...
24. ### Wheel Slippage

Hello Everyone, I have a 4WD mobile vehicle, I am trying to get the wheel to slip in the floor. I don't want to use oil or any water product (for my electronic safety and to keep the floor less messy) Any idea how to make the wheel slip on the floor? I was thinking about using snowboard...
25. ### Conservation of energy for a system

Homework Statement Figure shows a massless wheel of radius R on which at a point a mass m is fixed and a uniform chain of mass 2m is tied to it which passes over the rim of the wheel and half of its length is hanging on other side as shown in the figure. When a small clockwise jerk is given to...
26. ### Angular velocity at 1/2 radius

Homework Statement angular velocity about the axle = 65 rads^-1 diameter = 0.54m radius= 0.27m 1/2radius= 0.135m[/B] Homework Equations v=rw w=θ/t a=v^2/r=w^2r (Might be the probability that i have to use another equation)[/B] The Attempt at a Solution Firstly i cut the diameter in half...
27. ### Problem with wheels and arms

Dear Physics lover friends, I am in the middle of something and I would like to ask a question on how to solve this branch wheeled problem. The yellow lines are the branches, they have one wheels on them and the wheels are on a circular path. I would like to know how much the normal force A...
28. ### Bicycle Translational Acceleration vs Angular Acceleration

Homework Statement Given: Wheel radius is 20 CM, Gear radius is 5 CM, Coefficient of Static Friction is .2, Weight on rear wheel is 50 N. What is the minimum force that must be applied to the pedal for the wheel to begin accelerating on a level surface? Homework Equations Net T = I * a T = R...
29. ### Free body diagram of a wheel driven by a motor

Neglecting drag, I'm trying to understand how a wheel driven by a motor on a level surface rolls without sliding and experiences constant velocity. I'm trying to construct a free-body diagram. The wheel has a weight and a normal force acting on it in the vertical directions. The sum of...
30. ### Basic wheel calculations

Hi there, really trying to grasp these concepts for one of my engineering papers. This is basic stuff I realised now that I never really understood. If I've got two shafts, two wheels per shaft meaning four wheels in total, each wheel is 60 mm in diameter, and the power consumed by the system...
31. ### Wheel calculations (Power, torque, etc.)

Hi there, I've forgotten how to solve these problems, eg: If I've got two shafts, two wheels per shaft meaning four wheels in total, each wheel is 60 mm in diameter, and the power consumed by the system in providing a constant horizontal velocity of 0.15 m/s is 200W, what is the torque in each...
32. ### Is the tangential acceleration component always zero(wheel?)

If a wheel is rolling down a hill without slipping then we know the contact point has zero velocity. Is it also true that the tangential acceleration of this point is zero too?
33. ### Torque of a servo motor

The servo motor that i'm using says it has torque of 1.89 kg-cm. And the radius of the wheel i'm using is 3.5 cm. So i wanted to know how much load can two of these motors can together carry?
34. ### Mechanics Particular Wheel Problem

http://www.uzapping.eu/upload/P3.jpg [Broken] Homework Equations : Only Moment's formulas (I think) or Eventually Euler's Law[/B] The Attempt at a Solution : It's supposed to be an easy problem. But I just don't understand the mechanism and the meaning of the angle on the bottom. So I don't...
35. ### Moment of Inertia Graph

Homework Statement The moment of inertia (I) of the bicycle wheel about the axle, can be obtained graphically using the equation: rm(g-a) = I(a/r)+Frictional Torque. Explain how to form two variables so that, I and Frictional Torque can be obtained from a linear graph. Identify the constants...