# What is Wheel: Definition and 863 Discussions

In its primitive form, a wheel is a circular block of a hard and durable material at whose center has been bored a hole through which is placed an axle bearing about which the wheel rotates when torque is applied to the wheel about its axis. The wheel and axle assembly can be considered one of the six simple machines. When placed vertically under a load-bearing platform or case, the wheel turning on the horizontal axle makes it possible to transport heavy loads. This arrangement is the main topic of this article, but there are many other applications of a wheel addressed in the corresponding articles: when placed horizontally, the wheel turning on its vertical axle provides the spinning motion used to shape materials (e.g. a potter's wheel); when mounted on a column connected to a rudder or to the steering mechanism of a wheeled vehicle, it can be used to control the direction of a vessel or vehicle (e.g. a ship's wheel or steering wheel); when connected to a crank or engine, a wheel can store, release, or transmit energy (e.g. the flywheel). A wheel and axle with force applied to create torque at one radius can translate this to a different force at a different radius, also with a different linear velocity.

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1. ### Calculating Net Force on a Wheel: Magnitude and Direction | 0.350 m Radius

Three forces are applied to a wheel of radius 0.350 m, as shown in the figure. One force is perpendicular to the rim, one is tangent to it, and the other one makes a 40.0 degree angle with the radius, and a 10 degree angle with the horizontal. a) What is the magnitude of the net force on the...
2. ### I Car, wheels and Lorentz contraction of the road: Is this a Paradox?

A car travels at low speed on a road from start to finish, and counts the number of turns of the wheel, which gives it a road length of N.2πR, where R is the radius of the wheel. Then he does the race again at relativistic speed. He sees the road with a Lorentz contraction. However, he has to...
3. ### B How does the front wheel have no friction?

So I have difficulty understanding this https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/331173/why-is-friction-only-on-the-back-wheel With constant speed cycling uphill the front wheel has no friction. But if that would be the case how does the wheel even spin?
4. ### I Realistic steering wheel angle when car follows points along a path

Good morning , I managed to simplify the physics of my car with only the centrifugal and traction forces. If I'm in control of it, the realism is acceptable for a city builder. On the other hand, I encounter a problem when the car follows an array of points. The path of the car on my graph...
5. ### Question involving angular acceleration of a spinning wheel

wfinal=98.0 rad/s, dt=3.00s w=(37 revs/3)=>w=(37 revs*(2*pi/1))/3=>w=77.493 a=(98-77.493)/3=>a=6.8357 My answer is exactly half of the correct answer. Where did I go wrong?
6. ### Coordinates of a point on a rotating wheel

My issue is in deriving the coordinates of a point on a wheel that rotates without slipping. In Morin's solution he says that: My attempt at rederiving his equation: I do not understand how the triangle on the bottom with sides indicated in green is the same as the triangle on top that is...
7. ### Coin Slipping on a Spinning Wheel

The coin slipped in Trial 2 at a lower speed because the tangetial acceleration was higher than it was in Trial 1. The coin slips whenever a force overcome static friction. There is a force of static friction acting tangetially to the circle upon the coin causing it to accelerate. If the...
8. ### Calculate 6-Spoke Wheel Torque: F1d1+F2d2=F3d3+F4d4

F_{1}d_{1} + F_{2}d_{2} = F_{3}d_{3} + F_{4}d_{4} m_{1} gR cos 60 + m_{2}gR cos 60 = m_{3}gR cos 60 + m_{4}gR sin 90 m1 = m2= m3= m4= m R1=R2=R3=R4=R \sigma\tau = sin 90 - cos 60 = 0.5 Nm. Have I done this right?
9. ### Torques on a vertical wheel due to 3 masses spaced along the wheel rim

Applying rotational equilibrium at the center pivot we get: +mg(R) + Mg(Rcos60°)–2Mg(R) = 0.Using cos60° = ½ we arrive at the answer 3M/2 I don't understand why cosine is used instead of sine in the above equation. I see the y component mg is acting perpendicular to the x component and so from...
10. ### Acceleration of the cart on a Ferris Wheel (Circular Motion)

After 3,32 seconds, vt should have varied by 0,695*3,32. I have done a previous exercise where you only needed to calculate the radial acceleration in this scenario. There, I took the vt after the given time, squared it and then divided with the radius. I remember clearing that one, so in this...
11. ### I Required Strength of a Strap connecting 2 Rolls

Hello, I am trying to figure the strength (in lbs) of a strap needed to attach 2 Rolls together without breaking. Each wheel has a weight of 1000lbs and a diameter of 30in. If there is required information missing, let me know.
12. ### Engineering Applying Physics to Vehicle Dynamics: Do Wheel Number Matter?

I was modeling the dynamics of a vehicle for a project, and started doubting about the way of applying physics in this particular case. The thing is, I know the torque in the wheels from the torque the electric motor I designed do provide, multiplied by the gearbox ratio. I also know the...
13. ### Engineering Dynamic physical model - automobile wheel suspension confusion

Been a long time I studied physics that had anything to do with mechanics, so I'm now in need of memorizing almost everything. So I am seeking for some guidance here. This is "system simulation/modeling/discrete event system simulation/etc" type of subject. The first thing that I didn't...
14. ### Home project: Kilogram Force on wheel bearings

Hi all. I'm designing a custom spare wheel carrier for my 4wd and currently seeking knowledge on which bearings to use, so I need to work out what force on the bearings will be when it's open (closed will be locked and fully supported!) The example image is simplified for calculation. Close...
15. ### Properties that are important to Worm Wheel functions

From what I've gather the primary benefits to worm wheels are: - their ability to provide high reduction ratios - self-locking which can be useful for hoisting and lifting applications. - Operates silently and smoothly, which reduces vibrations Feel free to add any important ones I might've...
16. ### Force of brake pads on a wheel

[Mentor Note -- thread moved from the technical forums to the schoolwork forums] I have a hollow-cylinder wheel model, braked with brake pads located at a distance d of the wheel's center axis. The brake pads have a contact area S. They are also forced towards the wheel with a pressure p. The...
17. ### I Conservation of angular momentum -- spinning a bicycle wheel in space

Suppose we have a rotating body like a bicycle wheel in space away from gravity. This body stops after a while due to friction between the wheel and wheel axles. Is not the conservation of angular momentum violated?
18. ### MHB Probabilities of certain events in a lucky wheel game

Given information: A wheel of fortune with ten equal sectors is used for a candidate game. Five of these sectors are labelled only with the number 1, three only with the number 2 and two only with the number 3. The game for a pair of candidates is as follows: The two candidates �K1 and K2...
19. ### B Centrifugal Force on Rotating 4" tire / wheel @ 100mph

Heya PhysicsForums! Remote Control Car toy tires and wheels. a 4" tire/wheel rotates at 8400rpm at 100mph. Am wondering how many "g's" the tire "experiences" at that rpm; I imagine it being hundreds of times (if below is accurate am WAY off with my guess) Using a centrifugal force...
20. ### I Direction of friction of each wheel and total moment when a car turns

Static friction is known to provide centripetal force when a car turns. Assuming uniform circular motion, my questions are 1. Is the static friction of each wheel points toward the center of turning circle or it's the combined forces of all four wheels that has to point toward the center of...
21. ### Analyzing applied torque to one of lug nuts instead of wheel center

We all know that torque consists of force and distance. If we apply torque to the center of a car wheel, the force that the tire exerts to the ground can be calculated by dividing the torque by tire radius but what about applying torque to one of lug nuts which is off center? In the above...
22. ### I Which direction do the loads and reactions go in a Ferris wheel?

Considering a ferris wheel with the spokes being pretensioned cables. Which directions do the loads vs reactions go?
23. J

### B How do relativistic effects change oscillation of the balance wheel in mechanical watch causing it to tick slower?

Does mechanical watch ticks slower when move fast, due to relativistic effects? To make watch tick slower you must change oscillation of balance wheel inside watch, so if answer is yes, what myster "force" change balance wheel oscillation in mechanical watch to ticks slower?
24. ### Track Drive Around a Wheel?

Attached are photos of a Ford Model A snowmobile. The owner wrapped track pieces around the rear wheels, but it does not appear to have a bogie or other track drive system. Does this setup look like it is really effective as a tracked machine?
25. ### I Apparent Initial Acceleration due to Precession of Wheel Gyroscope?

The center of mass of a system is defined as a point that acts as if all the mass is concentrated on that one point whereby all forces may act on it. With a wheel gyroscope as an example where the center of mass is in the middle of the wheel when the wheel is spun and let go, the wheel undergoes...
26. ### I Exploring Acceleration at Contact Point Between Wheel and Surface

Hello guys, I am getting more and more confused each time I try to get a definitive answer on this doubt: what's the acceleration at the contact point between a surface and a wheel spinning on it(without slipping). Considering this standard FBD for the above-described situation, (the direction...
27. ### Pedrail Wheel -- Looking for the physical explanation

What is the physical explanation behind the pedrail wheel (a.k.a the walking wheel). Someone said it "makes it's own road", but how does it allow a vehicle to climb stairs, navigate rough terrain etc.? I have looked all over the Internet and even visited a university library, but information on...
28. ### The Physics of Wheel Movement: Exploring the Dynamics of Torque and Energy

Why the wheel moves? I intuitively think that it should move to right but I don't really understand why. When AB gets longer by x each end gets longer by x/2 so W goes to right and down. This will create torque and body will move. This explanation seems valid but I can't calculate anything and...
29. ### Shooting an arrow through the spokes of a turning wheel

r=22 cm = 0.022 m 3.5 rev/s L_arrow = 26 cm= 0.026 m first I got the speed in rad $$3.5* \frac {2 \pi}{0.022}= 999.6 m/s$$ from there I tried to determine the time the arrow had to pass through the spokes, 1/8 th of the wheel. $$\frac {2 \pi}{0.022} * \frac {1}{0.8} = 35.7 rad$$...
30. ### A Chain wheel

Just a nice experiment; comment in Russian is obvious
31. ### I Changing the RPM of a frictionless spinning wheel in a box

Imagine a spinning wheel built into a hand size vacuum box. There is no friction between the axe bearings of the wheel and the box. Let's say that the wheel rotates with 60 RPM. Am I right if I assume: 1. The wheel continues to rotate, approximately as if in space. 2. It is not possible to...
32. ### Automotive  Wheel + Trans diff + Torsion bar?

I have a crazy idea to make a 4 motor EV, but ran into an issue: the motors I want to use have a gear reduction (transmission?) That has a differential built into it. I only need to use one side of each, but I don't want to weld or otherwise destroy the other side of it. (That way I can...
33. ### Measure angular velocity and acceleration from missing tooth wheel

Hi, I need to come up with a math model for a digital ignition system. I've been thinking about it and I think that I need to measure 2 things to be able to calculate when I have to start charging the coil. They are the angular velocity and the acceleration but how can I do it? the idea is to...
34. ### Building a Two Omni Wheel Robot: Questions & Answers

Hello! I have a somewhat complicated robot project that I've simplified here to hopefully get a quick answer. I want to build a robot with two omni-wheels that looks like the following (not drawn to scale), where the black is the omni wheels at 45 degree angles and the blue is the robot body...
35. ### "Barlow's wheel" used as an electrical generator

In this thread, I hope to find some help in understanding one of the first application of Faraday's law of induction: the "Barlow's wheel". Basically the machine converts electrical power to mechanical, so as you can imagine, a battery, some conductor wires, a horseshoe magnet and a metal wheel...
36. ### Engineering Rigid wheel rolling without slipping -- Trying to find angular acceleration

So I tried the problem and it’s different from the solution. I’m confused on why my attempt didn’t work, is it because the wheel is undergoing general planar motion? I tried to just apply Newton’s 2nd law to find the acceleration of the centre and then use that to find angular acceleration. The...
37. ### Engineering Dynamics rigid body question -- Velocity of points on a car's wheel

The solutions used the spend of the wheel and its radius to find the angular velocity. I’m confused because I thought to find angular velocity you use the speed at the points of the radius not the translation speed of the wheel itself. Can someone explain this to me please
38. ### Torque of 4 wheel robot

Hi everybody I have 4 wheel robot like car . 2 stepper motors that one is in front and other is in rear of robot and these motors directly connected to wheels. so two of other wheels is not connected to motors. this robot move straight and curve. i want to find the formula that calculate...
39. ### The magnitudes of the applied force F and the frictional force f of a wheel

I calculate in this way as follows and get a correct answer. Howere I am not sure if I am using the right way. F R = (½ MR^2 + MR^2 ) a/R F = 3/2 Ma F - f = Ma f = 3/2 Ma - Ma = Ma/2
40. ### Check on a basic kinematic problem (FBD of a cabin on a Ferris wheel)

Hi guys, given the "blacker" to be the cabin under consideration, I firstly wrote its weight force; then, my confusion started when drawing the force applied on the cabin by the structure(##F_{r}##). I concluded it must have been both counter-acting the weight, and acting as a centripetal...
41. ### Spinning Bike Wheel Example, how is angular momentum conserved?

In the classic example of a person holding a spinning bike wheel, as they flip the wheel over, angular momentum is conserved by the person/chair spinning with 2x the angular momentum of the initial wheel. Not questioning that. However, I thought ang momentum is always conserved about a...
42. ### B Keep that wheel a-turnin' -- How much energy is required?

I know I'm probably overcomplicating this question, but I'm having a bit of difficulty coming up with a singular answer. I have a 4-foot diameter flywheel that I need to turn with an electric motor of an unknown horsepower. I say unknown because I I don't know what I need based upon the...
43. ### Help with this Ferris wheel rotational physics problem please

So this is what I've attempted: 666 = m*a1 510 = m*a2 a1= ac + 9.8 a2= ac-9.8 666 = m(ac+9.8) 510 = m(ac-9.8) 666 = m*ac + m*9.8 510 = m*ac - m*9.8 156 = 2m(9.8) m = 7.9 kg (which seems very wrong haha) any ideas?? I thought my reasoning was okay, since I considered that at the top of...
44. ### Bicycle wheel forced to roll around a vertical axle

I had some idea to solve this problem but i can't understand where the moment M is directed and where the force/forces that has magnitude ##\frac{M}{d}## is/are directed. Can anyone help me?
45. ### Why Wheels Roll: Exploring the Mechanics of Motion

Hello, The invention of the wheel changed the world. I imagine pulling a cart with square shaped wheels and how difficult and bumpy it would be.The wheel is essentially a circle, a polygon with infinite small sides while the square has only four sides. I guess that, at both end of the spectrum...
46. ### If a wheel gets rid of friction, how does it move?

I have a fundamental question that's bothering me. We need rebound force due to friction in order to move forward while walking. On the other hand, we say wheels reduce friction. Then how does it help move forward in the first place? I am confused here :rolleyes:
47. ### Wheel moving in rotation and translation

Hi :) 1/ First case A wheel with a mass ##m## and a radius ##r## moves in horizontal translation and rotates around itself. The wheel is just above the ground, doesn't touch it. The wheel rotates CW if the wheel moves in translation to the right. The ground is horizontal and there is no...
48. ### Engineering Gyroscopic Precession - Mass of wheel & Angular Momentum

Hello, I have this i am learning. I have been trying to find information online but have struggled to find anything which helps me. YouTube usually has good videos, but doesn't seem to on this. This is one topic i have never learned before. But keen to. I was hoping someone could help me...
49. ### Problem with gears — One geared wheel spins up another

By third Newton's law, i would imagine that fa = -fb, so and assuming f to be the average value torque in A -ra*f*t = Waf - Wao torque in b rb*f*t = Wbf and Ia*wo² = Ib*wbf² + Ia*waf² it Looks right to you? I really appreciate this method that i thought, but the answers don't match, and i...
50. ### Rigid body rotation problem: Mass on a cord spinning up a wheel on an axle

(I know how to solve the problem, that's not what I am looking for.) I have a problem with how I ought to understand the moment of inertia. The only torque I see applicable on the wheel is that of the tension, and so I think that ##I## should be ##m_{\text{point}}R^2##, without including all the...