# How Do You Calculate Velocities Using the Cosine Formula?

• jkh4
In summary, the conversation discusses how to find the values for each velocity in the given formula and image. The concept of conservation of momentum and conservation of kinetic energy is used to solve for the unknown values, and it is suggested to use the mass and initial and final velocities of the cue ball and 9-ball to find the final velocity and angle of the collision. It is also mentioned that "cos(x)" does not make sense in the given context and "theta" should be used instead.
jkh4
Given the following image and formula:

cos(x) = (vi)/(vf+V9)

how do you find the value for each of the velocity? I try using Pythagoras theory for the triangel but no use...

Do you even understand what the picture shows you? I'm not sure since you don't try to explain to us what the question is. For example, I can guess that the "m" under each ball is its mass- so that the two balls have the same mass. I can guess that "vi" and "vj" are the initial and final velocities of the cue ball and that "v9" is the velocity of the 9-ball after being hit by the cue ball. It would have been nice if you had said that rather than requiring anyone who wants to help you to guess. And, of course, the only "x" in your picture is the x-axis so "cos(x)" makes no sense at all. I guess you mean $\theta$ but even if you do not know how to make that symbol, it would have been better to type "theta".

You then can use "conservation of momentum". Using vi, vf, v9 now to mean the speed of each ball (magnitude of the velocity vector) the momentum vector of the cue ball before the collision is <mvi,0>, the momentum vector of the cue ball after the collision is <mvfcos($\theta$>,mvfsin($\theta$>, and the momentum vector of the 9-ball after the collision is <mv9cos(\theta),-mv9sin(\theta)>. Conservation of momentum gives
<mvi,0>= <mvfcos($\theta$>,mvfsin($\theta$>+ <mv9cos(\theta),-mv9sin(\theta)>.

Setting the x-coordinates equal gives mvi= mvfcos($\theta$)+ mv9cos($\theta$). From that equation you get cos($\theta$)= vi/(vf+ v9). Setting the y-coordinates equal gives 0= mvfsin($\theta$)- mv9sin($\theta$) or vf= v9.
That gives you 2 equations for the 3 unknown values vf, v9, and $\theta$ (assuming vi is given). You can use conservation of kinetic energy to get the third equation.

To solve for the value of cos(x), we need to first understand the formula and the variables involved. In this case, vi refers to the initial velocity, vf refers to the final velocity, and V9 refers to the velocity at 90 degrees from the initial velocity.

To find the value for each velocity, we can use the Pythagorean theorem to solve for the magnitude of the velocity at 90 degrees (V9). This can be done by using the formula V9 = √(vf^2 - vi^2). Once we have the value for V9, we can then substitute it into the original formula and solve for the final velocity (vf). This can be done by rearranging the formula to vf = (vi/cos(x)) - V9.

To find the initial velocity (vi), we can use the same formula but rearrange it to vi = (vf+V9)*cos(x). This will give us the value of the initial velocity in terms of the final velocity, the velocity at 90 degrees, and the cosine of the angle (x).

It is important to note that in order to accurately solve for the velocities, we need to have a value for the angle (x). This can be obtained through experimentation or by using mathematical methods such as trigonometry.

In summary, to solve for the cos(x) and find the value for each velocity, we need to understand the formula and the variables involved, use the Pythagorean theorem to solve for the velocity at 90 degrees, and then substitute the values into the original formula to solve for the final and initial velocities.

## 1. What is the cosine function?

The cosine function, denoted as cos(x), is a mathematical function that describes the relationship between the sides and angles of a right triangle. It is defined as the ratio of the adjacent side to the hypotenuse of a right triangle.

## 2. How do you find the value of cos(x)?

To find the value of cos(x), you can use a calculator or a table of values. Alternatively, you can use the cosine formula, which states that cos(x) = adjacent side / hypotenuse.

## 3. What is the range of values for cos(x)?

The range of values for cos(x) is between -1 and 1, as it is a ratio of two sides of a triangle. This means that the maximum value of cos(x) is 1, which occurs when the angle is 0 degrees, and the minimum value is -1, which occurs when the angle is 180 degrees.

## 4. How do you solve for x in cos(x)?

Solving for x in cos(x) requires using inverse functions, such as arccosine (cos-1). This will give you the angle measure in radians or degrees, depending on the calculator you are using.

## 5. What are some real-world applications of cos(x)?

Cosine functions have various applications in fields such as physics, engineering, and astronomy. Some examples include determining the position of an object using its velocity and acceleration, calculating the load on a bridge due to wind force, and predicting the position of celestial bodies in space.

• Introductory Physics Homework Help
Replies
10
Views
642
• Introductory Physics Homework Help
Replies
20
Views
1K
• Introductory Physics Homework Help
Replies
17
Views
1K
• Introductory Physics Homework Help
Replies
5
Views
1K
• Introductory Physics Homework Help
Replies
4
Views
673
• Introductory Physics Homework Help
Replies
14
Views
481
• Introductory Physics Homework Help
Replies
3
Views
710
• Introductory Physics Homework Help
Replies
17
Views
612
• Introductory Physics Homework Help
Replies
5
Views
944
• Introductory Physics Homework Help
Replies
4
Views
590