- 19

- 3

I need help cutting the fat away giving me around 2 minutes and 45 seconds worth of stuff so that I can have some quick experiments and speak slower so it's easier to understand. If you guys could help me on cutting it down a bit that would be super helpful! Thanks!

Speech:

- What are Black Holes? The information paradox is something that took scientists tens of years to understand, so let’s understand it in 3 minutes. Before we go deeper we need to understand what hawking radiation and a black holes are. Black holes are regions in spacetime with a core called a singularity with infinite density and virtually zero volume. The sphere that surrounds a black hole has a radius that can be calculated if you know the mass of the black hole. This is called the Schwarzschild radius, and surface area that surrounds the sphere is called the event horizon.

- Hawking Radiation. Another key concept we need to understand is Hawking Radiation, and how it causes black holes to “evaporate.” Over time, the mass of a black hole decreases as it emits particles in the form of radiation. When a pair of virtual particles appear next an event horizon, one particle crosses and the other particle escapes. Therefore, to ensure that conservation of energy is conserved, a black hole loses some of its mass in exchange for the virtual particle.

- What is information? So what is this “information”? In quantum mechanics, information is basically the arrangement of particles in a specific way. For example, if you arrange carbon atoms in a certain order, you get graphite. If you arrange those same atoms in a different way, you get diamonds. This is stored as what we call information, it’s kind of like if our universe was a giant computer storing everything as 1’s and 0’s. Picture a book. Now picture throwing it into a fire. It’s gone, right? Actually not really. If you could get back all the ashes and collect all the light and heat you could theoretically rebuild the book. The information of the book is not gone, it’s just hard to read.

- The Information Paradox. Suppose say there was a black hole, and I threw a fish inside it. According to our understanding of the universe, the fish’s information should come out as hawking radiation, but instead we get nothing. Hawking radiation is like a giant cosmic eraser that wipes out information as the black hole evaporates, and when it finally dies it leaves no trace that any information was ever there. Sounds like we got an information paradox, and the journey for an answer has come up with numerous solutions, including that our universe may actually just be a hologram.

- The Holographic Principle. The Holographic Principle is the idea that the information that falls into a black hole becomes plastered along the event horizon, and imprinted on the hawking radiation. This idea came from the fact that if someone fell into a black hole, an outside observer would never see the person cross the event horizon, and that their information would be smeared across the horizon. So the information is technically still there. But there's a problem. For starters, would the falling object have enough information to affect the hawking radiation, and even if it did have enough, wouldn’t that break the laws of quantum mechanics and create just another information paradox? Well yeah, it turns out that transferring information onto hawking radiation breaks the law of conservation of information just as much as if a black hole were to destroy it. If you were to fall into a black hole, you wouldn’t be frozen at the event horizon like what an outside observer were to see, you would fall right into the black hole with all your information. Once you are inside, your information would radiate out as hawking radiation AND be plastered along the event horizon, so isn’t duplicating? The answer is yea, it violates the quantum “No-cloning theorem” but a Stanford Physicist called Leonard Susskind thinks otherwise. He thinks that the two sources of information are separate, and that it does not violate the no-cloning theorem because of black hole complementarity. So what does this have to do with holograms? Another physicist named Gerard T’ Hooft realized that the falling information might actually clump together and create a bulge on the event horizon, adding more mass to the black hole. These bulges could then interact with the hawking radiation, allowing them to hitch a ride away. So then the information is not destroyed by the black hole. It is but rather a 2-dimensional representation of an object’s information imprinted on the surface of the event-horizon as a kind of indecipherable hologram. This led Gerard T’Hooft to realize that maybe our entire 3D universe is just a projection on a 2D structure. All of this is what is known as the Holographic Principle. Thank you for watching!