• Sabra_a
In summary: I can post the graph.In summary, the gas is expanding, therefore its volume will increase and the pressure will drop. As volume gets bigger particles have more space to move around.
Sabra_a
Homework Statement
Ideal gas expands from volume V1 to volume V2 in three different
regimes: isothermal, isobaric and adiabatic, Fig.Q1.

(i) Identify the regimes (isothermal, isobaric, adiabatic) with the
curves (1-2, 1-3, 1-4).

(ii) In which of three expansion regimes the gas will perform the
larger work?

(iii) In which of three expansion regimes the larger heat will be
transferred to the gas?
Relevant Equations
ideal gas
first law of thermodynamics
(i) In this case the gas is expanding therefore its volume will increase and the pressure will drop. As volume gets bigger particles have more space to move around.

Isobaric is curve (1-2). It’s a horizontal line because here the pressure is constant.

Isothermal is curve (1-3) temp is constant here, energy added to the system through work, the is no change in internal energy. Fromperfect gas equation
, m, R and temperature are constant therefore PV = constant,
and that’s similar to rectangular hyperbola
Adiabatic curve is (1-4) there is no heat transfer into or out of the system.

The internal energy of gas will decrease. As the gas expands it will cool down and lose its kinetic energy therefore temperature will decrease. The internal energy equal the work done on the gas as there is no heat supply to the gas. The gas is doing work on the environment to expand. Here the gas will end up on a lower pressure. That’s why the curve is steeper.

(ii) The area under the curve gives the work done in a system. If expansion is occurring, isothermal will perform the larger work.
In isobaric from the first law of thermodynamics

In isothermal process the internal energy U = 0
From the first law of thermodynamics
as
, heat flow intothe gas (Q) and work done on the gas (W) add up to zero.
. The work here is done more on the surrounding. Because the temperature is constant the internal energy didn’t change energy had to be added to the system to make up the work done. The heat get transferred from the surroundings to do the worktherefore isothermal process does more work than the adiabatic. The heat transferred to the gas keeps its temperature constant higher pressure and more work done
whereas for adiabatic heat flow (Q) = 0, From the first law of thermodynamics
as
, internal energy
there it means that the system's used its internal energy to perform its work

(iii) Adiabatic curve (1-4) there is no heat transfer into or out of the system, therefore its excluded.Isobaric curve (1-2) heat is transferred to the system to keep the pressure constant where Isothermal curve (1-3) temperature is constant and the internal energy is equal to zerobecause the temperature is constant the internal energy didn’t change energy had to be added to the system to make up the work done. Therefore, Isobaric has the largest heat transfer.

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Last edited:
You have to provide an attempt at a solution.

I attached a PDF file!
I can't paste the graph here

Last edited:
Sabra_a said:
I attached a PDF file!
I can't paste the graph here
You shouldn't force homework helpers to open files.

thank you but I wasn't forcing, I thought the answer will be more clear while looking into a graph. I don't think this should be considered as a no effort

Sabra_a said:
I thought the answer will be more clear while looking into a graph.
Indeed it would be, but the graph should appear within your post and not in an attachment (see below).

If I can post your figure, you can post your figure. If you cannot figure out how to do it, just ask.

Sabra_a
thank you

## What is the difference between isothermal, isobaric, and adiabatic processes?

The main difference between these processes lies in the way they affect the temperature, pressure, and heat transfer of a system.

## What is an isothermal process?

An isothermal process is a thermodynamic process where the temperature of the system remains constant throughout. This means that the heat transfer into or out of the system is balanced, resulting in no change in temperature.

## What is an isobaric process?

An isobaric process is a thermodynamic process where the pressure of the system remains constant throughout. This means that the system may exchange heat with its surroundings, but the pressure will remain the same.

## What is an adiabatic process?

An adiabatic process is a thermodynamic process where there is no heat transfer between the system and its surroundings. This means that the system's temperature and pressure may change, but no heat is added or removed.

## How are these processes used in real-world applications?

Isothermal, isobaric, and adiabatic processes are commonly used in many industrial and scientific applications, such as in refrigeration and air conditioning systems, gas turbines, and chemical reactions. Understanding and controlling these processes is crucial for optimizing energy efficiency and performance in these systems.

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