Magnitude of the Net Electrostatic Force On an Oxygen Atom

In summary, the water molecule has an angle of Θ = 103.5o between the oxygen atom and the two hydrogen atoms. The distance between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms is d = 93.1 x 10-9 m. The net electrostatic force on the oxygen atom can be calculated using the equation F=(k*q1*q2)/r^2, where k is a constant of 9*10^9, q1 is the charge on the oxygen atom, and q2 is the charge on each hydrogen atom. The charge on the oxygen atom, Q1, is -1.104 x 10-19 C, while the charge on each hydrogen atom, Q2, is 5.52
  • #1
shimizua
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Homework Statement


The water molecule forms an angle, with hydrogen atoms at the tips and the oxygen atom at the vertex (see diagram in the previous problem).
Assume that the angle at the oxygen atom is Θ = 103.5o and the distance between the oxygen and the hydrogen atoms is d = 93.1 x 10-9 m.
Calculate the magnitude of the net electrostatic force on the oxygen atom. Use the charges from the previous problem.

This next stuff is what i have already figured out in a different problem that they want you to use in this one.
The water molecule consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. Since the oxygen atom has a higher electronegativity than the hydrogen atom, the side of the molecule with the oxygen atom has a partial negative charge. Assume that the partial negative charge on the oxygen atom is Q1 = -1.104 x 10-19 C. What is the magnitude of the charge Q2 on each hydrogen atom?

and here is the picture.
http://jilawww.colorado.edu/beckergroup/figures/Water.jpg
For this part i got an answer of 5.52e-20 C which the computer said was correct.
that should be all the info you need

Homework Equations


so i am pretty sure that you do F=(k*q1*q2)/r^2 but i am just unsure of why they give you the angle of the oxygen to the hydrogen and what to do with it. please help me!


The Attempt at a Solution


well k is a constant that is 9*10^9 (i think) q2 is the 5.52e-20 C that i found inthe other equation, i am trying to find q1 and r 1/2(93.1x10^-9) but other then that i have no idea what to do.
 
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  • #2
Isn't the question asking you for the vector sum of the two electrostatic forces on the oxygen atom due to the two hydrogen atoms?
 
  • #3


I would approach this problem by first understanding the concept of electrostatic forces and how they are calculated. The equation F=(k*q1*q2)/r^2 is known as Coulomb's Law and is used to calculate the electrostatic force between two charges, where k is the Coulomb's constant, q1 and q2 are the magnitudes of the charges, and r is the distance between them.

In this problem, we are given the distance between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms (d=93.1 x 10^-9 m) and the magnitude of the partial negative charge on the oxygen atom (Q1 = -1.104 x 10^-19 C). We are also given the angle at the oxygen atom (Θ = 103.5o), which is important because it affects the direction of the electrostatic force.

To calculate the magnitude of the net electrostatic force on the oxygen atom, we need to consider the electrostatic force from each hydrogen atom separately. Since the hydrogen atoms have a positive charge due to the partial negative charge on the oxygen atom, the electrostatic force from each hydrogen atom will be repulsive.

Using Coulomb's Law, we can calculate the magnitude of the electrostatic force from each hydrogen atom on the oxygen atom. The distance between them (r) is equal to half of the distance between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms, since the angle is 103.5o. So, r = 1/2(93.1 x 10^-9 m) = 46.55 x 10^-9 m.

Plugging in the values, we get F1 = (9 x 10^9 N*m^2/C^2)*(-1.104 x 10^-19 C)*(5.52 x 10^-20 C)/(46.55 x 10^-9 m)^2 = -2.69 x 10^-14 N. Since this force is repulsive, the negative sign indicates that it is acting in the opposite direction of the positive charge on the hydrogen atom.

We can repeat this calculation for the second hydrogen atom, and then find the net electrostatic force on the oxygen atom by adding the two forces together. Since the two forces are acting at an angle of 103.5o, we can use vector addition to find the magnitude of the net force, which will be the hypotenuse of a right triangle formed by the two
 

Related to Magnitude of the Net Electrostatic Force On an Oxygen Atom

1. What is the definition of magnitude of the net electrostatic force on an oxygen atom?

The magnitude of the net electrostatic force on an oxygen atom is the measure of the strength of the electric force acting on the atom due to the presence of other charged particles. It is a vector quantity and is expressed in units of Newtons (N).

2. How is the magnitude of the net electrostatic force on an oxygen atom calculated?

The magnitude of the net electrostatic force on an oxygen atom can be calculated using Coulomb's Law, which states that the force is directly proportional to the product of the two charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. The equation for calculating the magnitude is F = k*q1*q2/r^2, where k is the Coulomb's constant, q1 and q2 are the charges of the two particles, and r is the distance between them.

3. What factors affect the magnitude of the net electrostatic force on an oxygen atom?

The magnitude of the net electrostatic force on an oxygen atom is affected by the charges of the interacting particles, the distance between them, and the medium in which they are present. The force increases with an increase in charge and decreases with an increase in distance. The type of medium, such as air or water, can also affect the magnitude of the force.

4. How does the magnitude of the net electrostatic force on an oxygen atom impact chemical bonding?

The magnitude of the net electrostatic force on an oxygen atom plays a crucial role in determining the type and strength of chemical bonds formed between atoms. In covalent bonds, the force is shared between atoms, while in ionic bonds, one atom has a significantly higher force than the other, resulting in the transfer of electrons. The magnitude of the force also affects the stability and reactivity of molecules.

5. Can the magnitude of the net electrostatic force on an oxygen atom be negative?

Yes, the magnitude of the net electrostatic force on an oxygen atom can be negative. This occurs when the charges of the interacting particles are of opposite signs, resulting in an attractive force. In such cases, the force is represented as a negative value, indicating its direction towards the opposite charge.

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