# What is Electrostatic: Definition and 874 Discussions

Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at rest.
Since classical physics, it has been known that some materials, such as amber, attract lightweight particles after rubbing. The Greek word for amber, ήλεκτρον, or electron, was thus the source of the word 'electricity'. Electrostatic phenomena arise from the forces that electric charges exert on each other. Such forces are described by Coulomb's law.
Even though electrostatically induced forces seem to be rather weak, some electrostatic forces such as the one between an electron and a proton, that together make up a hydrogen atom, is about 36 orders of magnitude stronger than the gravitational force acting between them.
There are many examples of electrostatic phenomena, from those as simple as the attraction of the plastic wrap to one's hand after it is removed from a package to the apparently spontaneous explosion of grain silos, the damage of electronic components during manufacturing, and photocopier & laser printer operation. Electrostatics involves the buildup of charge on the surface of objects due to contact with other surfaces. Although charge exchange happens whenever any two surfaces contact and separate, the effects of charge exchange are usually only noticed when at least one of the surfaces has a high resistance to electrical flow. This is because the charges that transfer are trapped there for a time long enough for their effects to be observed. These charges then remain on the object until they either bleed off to ground or are quickly neutralized by a discharge: e.g., the familiar phenomenon of a static "shock" is caused by the neutralization of charge built up in the body from contact with insulated surfaces.

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1. ### I Electrostatic force exerted on an electron inside a nucleus

This is SAMPLE PROBLEM 25-7 from "Physics" by Resnik, Halliday, and Krane, in the chapter "Electric Field and Coulomb's Law". After describing the behavior of uniformly charged spherical shells: follows a sample problem: The solution to (a) goes to say that the volume inside R/2 is 1/8 of the...
2. ### Equipotential surface (test questions)

The answer to the first question should be a sphere since for very large distances the multiple charges will act as a point charge. 1(a) is correct answer. For the second question, I find it slightly vague. How can equipotential surface be zero, may be it's asking for the potential of...
3. ### Multipole expansions, calculating the various moments of point charges

Problem: Solution: This was quite simple, are my solutions correct?
4. ### Method of Images, combination of an infinite plane and a hemisphere

Problem: I have done part a) in spherical polar coordinates. For part b) I thought it would be just: $$\sigma = -\epsilon_0 \frac{\partial V}{\partial r}$$ But I got confused by "You may want to use different coordinate systems .." So I assume partial derivative w.r.t to r is the spherical...
5. ### Surface density of the charges induced on the bases of the cylinder

The correct answer to this problem is: ##\sigma = \varepsilon_0E\frac{\varepsilon-1}{\varepsilon}## Here is my attempt to solve it, please tell me what is my mistake? ##E_{in} = E_{out} - E_{ind}## ##E_{ind} = E_{out} - E_{in}## ##E_{in} = \frac{E_{out}}{\varepsilon}## ##E_{ind} = E_{out} -...
6. ### Force between point charges at the center of two spherical shells

If these point charges were placed in vacuum without any spherical shells in the picture, then the force between these charges would be ##F =\dfrac { k q_1 q_2} {d^2}##. But, I am unable to reason how spherical shells would alter the force between them. I do know that if charges were on the...
7. ### Discontinuity in an Electric line of force

This is a tricky and difficult question for me. I know from reading various textbooks that electric lines of force are always continuous without breaks, but cannot pinpoint a reason for this. The only reason I can come up is that an electric line of force must always begin and end on charges...