# Number theory proof: Unique determination of a recursively defined function

• a7d07c8114
In summary, the author argues that the value of a function at each positive integer is uniquely determined. However, they state that this can be proven by mathematical induction, by first proving that the function is well-defined and then showing that every function satisfying the recursive definition is equal to f.
a7d07c8114

## Homework Statement

Use the principle of mathematical induction to show that the value at each positive integer of a function defined recursively is uniquely determined.

I understand the problem and its related concepts. However, I feel that my attempt at a proof doesn't use the principle of mathematical induction properly. I would appreciate any insight into the solution.

This problem is taken from Rosen's Elementary Number Theory and Its Applications, page 16.

## Homework Equations

The Principle of Mathematical Induction. A set of positive integers that contains the integer 1 and the integer n+1 whenever it contains n must be
the set of all positive integers.

We say the function f is defined recursively if the value of f at 1 is specified and if a rule is provided for determining f(n+1) from f(n).

## The Attempt at a Solution

Let there exist a recursively defined function f, whose domain is all n such that n is a positive integer. For n=1, the value of f(1) is arbitrarily specified, and therefore the value of f has a unique determination at 1.

Assume there is a value of n such that f(n) is uniquely determined. Assume f(n+1) is not uniquely determined. Then the determination of f(n+1) must be the same as the determination of f(m), where m is a positive integer less than n+1. Assume n+1=2. Then m=1, since 1 is the the only number in the domain of f less than 2. Then f(2) must have the same determination as f(1). But f(1) is defined to be uniquely determined, leading to a contradiction. Therefore, f(2) must also be uniquely determined.

Assume n+1=3. Then m must be either 1 or 2...

This process can be continued infinitely. Therefore f(n+1) must be uniquely determined. By the Principle of Mathematical Induction, it can therefore be concluded that f(n) is uniquely determined at all positive integer values of n.

I think the biggest difficulty is that your usage of f is exceedingly awkward. Taken literally, it's actually nonsense. However, I imagine you have a correct idea in your head and are struggling with how to turn that idea into something you can manipulate logically.

I suggest you try and ponder just what you're trying to when you use the symbol f, and find a better way to express yourself.

Thanks for the reply. I'm not sure I understand very well though. Could you perhaps link me to an explanation or a proof that illustrates your point? I did feel that it was awkward writing the proof the way I did, but I'm so far a complete novice at proof writing in general.

The problem is not on page 16. It is on page 28.:) But anyway here is the way I would do it.

Suppose that f(n) is defined recursively by specifying the value of f(1) and a rule for finding f(n+1)
from f(n). We will prove by mathematical induction that such a function is well-defined. First, note that
f(1) is well-defined since this value is explicitly stated. Now assume that f(n) is well-defined. Then
f(n + 1) also is well-defined since a rule is given for determining this value from f(n).

Am I allowed to do that? It seems like just restating the definition of a recursive function to me...though I'm very new at this, so I don't know if that's what you're meant to do. Or maybe I'm just interpreting "uniquely defined" the wrong way.

Page 25 of my copy.

Mainly, the thing I find lacking in both of your proofs is that you start with "let f be defined by the recursive definition..." and formulate the rest of the proof in terms of f.

On the face of it, there are two serious difficulties with this approach, which amount to completely ignoring what is to be proven:
1. That there exists f satisfying the recursive definition needs to be proven​
and given such an f
2. Every function satisfying the recursive definition is equal to f

I think it's likely the actual ideas both of you have in your head really do address these points, and probably correctly so.

That said, upon reflection I realize the point of this is to be an exercise in mathematical induction, and not to be an exercise in foundations, so it's probably fine to be imprecise on these points. I withdraw my objection.

## 1. How is a recursively defined function different from a regular function?

A recursively defined function is one that is defined in terms of itself, meaning it uses its own output as part of its input. This allows for a function to be defined in a more concise and efficient way, as well as being able to solve problems that may not be possible with regular functions.

## 2. What is the importance of proving the unique determination of a recursively defined function?

Proving the unique determination of a recursively defined function is important because it ensures that the function will always produce the same result for a given input. This is crucial for the reliability and accuracy of the function, especially in fields such as mathematics and computer science.

## 3. How is number theory used in the proof of unique determination of a recursively defined function?

Number theory is used in the proof by providing a mathematical framework for understanding and manipulating numbers. It allows for the use of mathematical properties and theorems to prove the uniqueness of the function, making the proof more rigorous and reliable.

## 4. Can a recursively defined function have more than one solution?

No, a recursively defined function can only have one solution. This is because the function is defined in terms of itself, so any other solution would lead to a contradiction. The uniqueness of the function is what makes it useful and reliable in solving problems.

## 5. How does the proof of unique determination of a recursively defined function benefit other areas of science?

The proof of unique determination of a recursively defined function has applications in various areas of science, such as computer science, physics, and economics. It provides a reliable method for solving problems and can lead to more efficient and accurate solutions in these fields.

• Calculus and Beyond Homework Help
Replies
1
Views
596
• Calculus and Beyond Homework Help
Replies
5
Views
727
• Calculus and Beyond Homework Help
Replies
6
Views
495
• Calculus and Beyond Homework Help
Replies
8
Views
170
• Calculus and Beyond Homework Help
Replies
6
Views
1K
• Calculus and Beyond Homework Help
Replies
1
Views
646
• Calculus and Beyond Homework Help
Replies
7
Views
2K
• Calculus and Beyond Homework Help
Replies
5
Views
197
• Calculus and Beyond Homework Help
Replies
4
Views
527
• Calculus and Beyond Homework Help
Replies
1
Views
640