I've recently taken to understanding capacitors and capacitance. If I understand them correctly they are what store electrical charge or electrical energy. I don't quite understand their purpose though, do they keep the breadboards from overloading with power but keeping little pockets of energy? What would happen if a computer or a typical circuit board didn't have them. Also I know that a capacitor is two conductive plates with a dielectric in the middle. The electrons and protons naturally want to get to the other side of each other and align so they build up on either side of the dielectric. But how do the electrons/protons feel this pull between the other side? what is this force and what about the atoms within the dielectric why don't they react? Also if I understand this they at some point separate into two groups on either side one side being protons then other electrons so this forms something like a battery? with negative and positive terminals? why does that process allow for the storage of energy or charge so well? Also, what determines which conductive plate becomes positive and which becomes negative? It is possible I have gotten this information all wrong and that I don't understand the process.