The great basic question of science: Membrane compartment or non-membrane phase compartment (biophase) is a physical basis for origin of life? Matveev V.V. 2016. Comparison of fundamental physical properties of the model cells (protocells) and the living cells reveals the need in protophysiology. International Journal of Astrobiology, Page 1-8. Stable URL: http://journals.cambridge.org/abstract_S1473550415000476 Preview PDF with highlights: http://www.bioparadigma.spb.ru/files/Matveev-2016-Protophysiology.Preview.and.Highlights.pdf The Biophase is the Physical Basis of Life http://www.bioparadigma.spb.ru/files/Matveev-2016-Biophase.is.physical.basis.of.life.jpg Comments and critisim are welcome. HIGHLIGHTS OF THE PAPER (short list): (1) Since the sodium-potassium pump (Na+/K+-ATPase) was discovered, no molecular model has been proposed for a predecessor of the modern sodium pump. Neither Miller's electrical charges, nor Fox's amino-acid condensation, nor building ready-made biomolecules into coacervates; none of this has managed to lead to the self-origination of the progenitor of the ion pump even in favourable lab conditions. (2) It is impossible to explain the properties of well-studied cellular model (Fox's microspheres) on the basis of fudamental ideas of membrane physiology (lipid membrane, ion channels, sodium pump). (3) According to recent studies, non-membrane phase compartments play an important role in the functioning of the cell nucleus, nuclear envelope and then of cytoplasm. Somebody sees the compartments even as temporary organelles. According to available data, the phase compartments can play a key role in cell signaling. (4) In the view of non-membrane phase approach, the usage of liposomes and other membrane (non-biophase) cell models to solve the issue of the origin of life is a deadlock way of the investigation.