- #1

thariya

- 12

- 1

I've always regarded the coupling Hamiltonian for a bosonic cavity mode coupled to a two-level fermionic gain medium chromophore to be of the form,

$$H_{coupling}=\hbar g(\sigma_{10}+\sigma_{01})(b+b^{\dagger})$$,

where ##b## and ##b^{\dagger}## and annihilation and creation operators for the bosonic cavity mode and ##\sigma_{ij}## are the raising and lowering operators for a two level atom. ##g## is the coupling constant.

Using the rotating wave approximation, this sometimes is simplified to,

$$H_{coupling}=\hbar g(\sigma_{10}b+\sigma_{01}b^{\dagger})$$.

I've recently come across some texts that seems to use an alternate form(under the rotating wave approximation) to describe (what I perceive is) the exact same system,

$$H_{coupling}=\hbar g(\sigma_{10}b-\sigma_{01}b^{\dagger})$$,

the main difference being the negative sign. Would you be able to explain why this difference occurs and what the significance of the negative sign is?

Thanks!