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Can anyone explain, why quadrature sampling works the way it does? i.e. taking 2 samples for the I and 2 samples for the Q.

I mean I can understand if one tries to sample one mono frequency signal, say 40 Hz sine wave, on 0, 90, 180, 270 degrees, that is a sampling frequency of 160 samples per second.

But in practice, quadrature sampling is used to sample signals with larger bandwidth, say e.g. an IF signal. So how can one make sure that the IQ distance is correct (or enough) also for those signals who where way slower. So in above example a signal which has components from 20 up to 40 Hz but is still sampled with 160 sps?

I am sure missing a point...

thanks for help.