What Determines the Valence of Transition Metals?

In summary, transition metals in their normal state have 2 valence electrons, as evidenced by their electron configurations. The 3d electrons are listed before the 4s, meaning the 4s orbital gets filled first, followed by the 3d orbitals. This explains why the valences of transition metals can vary and why the 1B-8B columns exist. The d electrons are also valence electrons and play a role in bonding.
  • #1
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Judging from the electron configurations, it appears to me that all transition metals in their normal state have 2 valence electrons. If it isn't, what are the valences of the transition metals, why can they have many different valences, and what are the 1B-8B columns for?

Number of electrons in each energy shell:
Ar : 2, 8, 8
K : 2, 8, 8, 1
Ca : 2, 8, 8 , 2
(Transition Metals)
Sc : 2, 8, 9 , 2
Ti : 2, 8, 10, 2
V : 2, 8, 11, 2
Cr : 2, 8, 12, 2
::
::
::
::
Zn : 2, 8, 18, 2
Ga : 2, 8, 18, 3---------and so on.
 
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  • #2
That's because the 3d electrons are listed before the 4s. The 4s orbital gets filled first, hence Ca is 4s2, and then the 3d orbitals (the 4s being completely filled), hence Sc is 3d14s2, and so on.

The d electrons are most definitely valence electrons and participate in bonding.
 

What is the valence of transition metals?

The valence of transition metals refers to the number of electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom of a transition metal. This number can vary depending on the specific element and its chemical properties.

Why are the valence electrons of transition metals important?

The valence electrons of transition metals play a crucial role in the chemical and physical properties of these elements. They are responsible for the formation of chemical bonds and the ability of transition metals to exhibit multiple oxidation states.

How does the valence of transition metals affect their reactivity?

The valence of transition metals greatly influences their reactivity. Since transition metals have multiple valence electrons, they can form bonds with a variety of different elements, making them highly reactive and able to form a wide range of compounds.

What is the relationship between the valence of transition metals and their atomic size?

The valence of transition metals does not have a direct relationship with their atomic size. However, as the number of valence electrons increases, the overall size of the atom may increase due to the repulsion between the negatively charged electrons.

How does the valence of transition metals impact their ability to conduct electricity?

The valence electrons of transition metals are responsible for their high electrical conductivity. These electrons are able to move freely within the metal lattice, allowing for the flow of electricity. The more valence electrons present, the higher the conductivity of the metal.

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