What is Transition: Definition and 538 Discussions
A transition economy or transitional economy is an economy which is changing from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. Transition economies undergo a set of structural transformations intended to develop market-based institutions. These include economic liberalization, where prices are set by market forces rather than by a central planning organization. In addition to this trade barriers are removed, there is a push to privatize state-owned enterprises and resources, state and collectively run enterprises are restructured as businesses, and a financial sector is created to facilitate macroeconomic stabilization and the movement of private capital. The process has been applied in China, the former Soviet Union and Eastern bloc countries of Europe and some Third world countries, and detailed work has been undertaken on its economic and social effects.
The transition process is usually characterized by the changing and creating of institutions, particularly private enterprises; changes in the role of the state, thereby, the creation of fundamentally different governmental institutions and the promotion of private-owned enterprises, markets and independent financial institutions. In essence, one transition mode is the functional restructuring of state institutions from being a provider of growth to an enabler, with the private sector its engine. Another transition mode is change the way that economy grows and practice mode. The relationships between these two transition modes are micro and macro, partial and whole. The truly transition economics should include both the micro transition and macro transition. Due to the different initial conditions during the emerging process of the transition from planned economics to market economics, countries uses different transition model. Countries like P.R.China and Vietnam adopted a gradual transition mode, however Russia and some other East-European countries, such as the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia, used a more aggressive and quicker paced model of transition.The term "transition period" is also used to describe the process of transition from capitalism to the first stage of socialism, preceding the establishment of fully developed socialism (aka communism).
Hi all,
My exposure to atomic physics is limited and hence could use some expert opinion on a basic question. From my knowledge, Rydberg atoms are assumed to be hydrogen-like and hence the Rydberg formula to calculate the transition frequency is generally used. But not all atoms are the same...
I have a 555 running off of 5v. I want this signal to control another IC running off of 15v so the output toggles between 0 and 15v. I tried a 4069 hex inverter, but when it runs of 15v the 555 running off of 5v does not reach the logic HIGH threshold. I tried using a FOD3180 coupler, but did...
Ok so I’m going into my second year of college and I’m starting to learn more advanced chemistry (pray for me🙏) I’m currently on the topic of D-Block elements and I was already aware of electron configurations and how to write them out… however what I have never come across prior was the use of...
Hello! I have some measurements of a given transition in an atom, where each event consist of the measurement of this transition and the associated uncertainty (as details, the way it is done, is for each event recorded we measure the laser frequency and Doppler shift it to the frame of the...
In my late twenties, currently working as a data scientist in the UK, looking to sit A level maths, further maths and physics as a private candidate (not going through a distance learning provider) and pursue a joint degree in physics and computer science (which I know both St Andrews and...
When looking at the energy level diagram of Al26, I see a meta stable state 2.836keV higher that has a half life measured in seconds compared to the half life of the ground state measured in megayears.
Would it be possible to push a sample of Al26 to the Al26m state by irradiating it with the...
I'm reading this article about quantum entanglement, and the author writes about a process in a Raman transition which would break the entanglement, and I'm interested about how it breaks the entanglement.
So the passage which I'm interested in begins with: "The answer is to do an operation...
Hey all,
I am currently looking for some data on the resonant transition dipole moment for the Rydberg states of Strontium (in the literature, the square of the dipole moment is known as the "C3 coefficient"). If anyone could point me to some relevant papers that would be greatly appreciated.
Summary: The transition rate matrix for a problem where there are 5 Processing Units
A computer has five processing units (PU’s). The lifetimes of the PU’s are independent and have the Exp(µ) law. When a PU fails, the computer tries to reconfigure itself to work with the remaining PU’s. This...
Summary: Finding the transition matrix of a paint ball game where only 3 probabilities are given.
We have the following question:
Alice, Tom, and Chloe are competing in paint ball. Alice hits her target 40% of the time, Tom hits his target 25% of the time, and Chloe hits her target 30% of the...
I'm going into my final year of undergraduate theoretical physics. I have had a bit of a deviation in what I want to do and would really like to work in software development in the future. How difficult would it be for me to deviate from my current position and what steps should I take to to...
Hey guys, I just numerically calculated the matrix elements for a superconducting qubit and I'm having some trouble to interpret the result.
I will include a plot of the matrix I got below:
I basically have "large" non zero elements on the main diagonal of this matrix. In previous courses I...
Consider a Markov chain with state space {1, 2, 3, 4} and transition matrix P given below:
Now, I have already figured out the solutions for parts a,b and c. However, I don't know how to go about solving part d? I mean the question says we can't use higher powers of matrices to justify our...
So for part a, I separately minimized F wrt ##\theta## and ##P## and got the following.
$$\frac {\partial f} {\partial \theta} = a_{\theta}(T-T_{\theta})\theta + b_{\theta}\theta^3 - tP = 0$$
$$ \frac {\partial f} {\partial P} = \alpha(T-T_P)P -t\theta$$
$$ P = t\theta \alpha (T-T_P) $$
Then...
Hi y'all, I'm a 3rd year undergraduate, finishing up a BS in physics and a BA in political science.
I've been working at a computational physics lab since freshman year, my GPA is pretty good (3.73 right now), and I'm pretty involved in campus leadership.
I love physics and the lab I'm working...
One sentence summarization
For a student initially working on a more phenomenological side of the high energy physics study, what is the recommendation of introductory reading materials for them to dive into a more mathematically rigorous study of the quantum field theory.
Elaboration...
I have read that an electron requires certain minimum energy of threshold frequency to move an orbit
However the energy needed decreases with increase in shell number
The transition energy is reduced with each orbit
For example
The energy to shift an electron from 1st to 2nd orbit is much...
In a 2012 article published in the Mathematical Gazette, in the game of golf hole score probability distributions were derived for a par three, four and five based on Hardy's ideas of how an hole score comes about. Hardy (1945) assumed that there are three types of strokes: a good (##G##)...
I understand that on Riemannian manifolds, the transition functions that glue charts together are coordinate transformations (Jacobian matrices).
However, I am not quite sure how transition functions work in the context of Lie groups and Fiber bundles. Do we consider the manifolds to be flat...
I am looking for possible examples and a variant of Landau's theory of phase transitions for an exotic order-disorder phase transition, in which a thermodynamic system jumps into a disordered (or less orderly) state by reaching the maximum critical value of the order parameter. That is, in one...
The spectrochemical series of metals, under the circumstances that same ligands are used and that it is in an octahedral coordination, is given by:
Mn2+ < Ni2+ < Co2+ < Fe2+ < V2+ < Fe3+ < V3+ < Co3+ < Mn4+ < Mo3+ < Rh3+ < Ru3+ < Pd4+ < Ir3+ < Pt4+
When I was skimming through a textbook to...
I'm watching the Stanford University Lecture series: Einsten's General Theory of Relativity presented by Leonard Susskind (who incidentally has to be one of the greatest educators I've ever watched).
Whilst deriving the basic divergence equations relating acceleration, mass density, and...
Why d and f orbitals in transition metals considered localize?
Is it an experimetal result that d and f orbitals are more near to nuclea than s orbital in transition metals or there is another reason for considering them localized in a solid?
Hello! I'm struggling with this exercise for three days already. Would appreciate any help. Thanks in advance. This is my thoughts...
So a number density ρ=N/V. As I understand N doesn’t change through transition, but V changes
The free energy F=U-TS or dF=-PdV-SdT
As the liquid coexists...
Hi all!
This is my first post here, so hopefully I am not in violation of any rules or etiquette. I'm looking to derive an equation for Reynolds number as function of pressure for a pinhole leak in a pressurized gas line. The line is regular air and is pressurized to 1 atmosphere and is leaking...
The note I get from the teacher states that for transition matrix, the column part will be current state and the row part will be future state (let this be matrix A) so the sum of each column must be equal to 1. But I read from another source, the row part is the current state and the column...
Hi, I'm learning Reinforcement Learning, and computing q values is challenging.
I'm not sure if the question wants me to follow this formula since I'm not given the learning rate \( \alpha \), and also because Q- Learning doesn't need a transition matrix. I'm really not sure where to begin...
good day! I did not find a suitable forum thread, so I am writing here ... There is a valve through which you need to drive gas under a certain pressure, physically there is no way to drive gas, so it was decided to replace the gas with air. Knowing the required pressure and gas temperature, how...
https://edition.cnn.com/2020/07/06/politics/international-college-students-ice-online-learning/index.html
International students may need to leave US if their universities transition to online-only learning
Hello! I am really new to this field, so I am sorry if my questions is silly or missing some parts. Please correct me if that is so. I am a bit confused about how well we can extract the value of a transition, say from ground to an excited state, of an atom (let's assume we can ignore any other...
Suppose a atom has two energy levels ##\hbar \omega _ a##, and ##\hbar \omega _b##, and let ##\hbar \omega _0 =\hbar \omega _b -\hbar \omega _a ##. Also, there is a phton with enerigy of ##\hbar \omega##.
If ##\hbar \omega =\hbar \omega _0##, then a atom in level ##\hbar \omega _ a## can absorb...
Here is the Ehrenfest Chain that the question is talking about:
I was able to solve parts 1 and 2 as shown in the image below. But I'm not really sure how I'd prove part three. Any help would be appreciated, thanks!
I set hN(1)hN(1) equal to cNcN, but I'm confused on how I'd be able to solve it and because of that I was not able to conclude that 0 is recurrent when qx/px = infinity
Transition metals, being metals, are electropositive.Ligands like ammonia,oxygen,chlorine etc ,on the other hand,are mostly electronegative(electron loving).How come the Ligands donate electrons to the electro positive(electron hating)transition metals when both have contradictory...
I know that if the collision was not elastic, some of the kinetic energy of the incident neutron wound be used up in some other process. But, I can't understand how I can figure out exactly how much. Even if I can calculate it, I don't know how to find the condition for the collision to go from...
How is it proved that Van Der Waals gas is a second order phase transition?
The second order derivative of the pressure (P ) with respect to volume ( V ) don't have a discontinuity ( except at point V = Nb , but the pressure is not existent for V<=Nb ). So how come Van der waals gas describes...
Hi. I have a application for a bistable spring mechanism. But my problem is that all of the ones i have seen require to go past the "midpoint" before it flips to the other side. Is there any such mechanism that flips over to position 2 before you get to the "midpoint" from position 1?
Example...
I have a speed estimator that calculates a cyclist's Steady State Velocity v given the rider's power output p (watts), rider mass m (kg) and hill gradient g. For this particular model, headwind and tailwind beyond the drag force conditions are not relevant.
In the model I use, there are three...
The set of quantum numbers for the 4p orbital is: 4, 1, {-1,1}, +-1/2 (n,l,m,s)
The set of quantum numbers for the 4d orbital: 4,2,{-2,2},+-1/2
Hence we can calculate DeltaE for the 4p sub levels for j=1+- 1/2
And for the 4d sub levels as j=2+-1/2.
Giving four total values for Delta E as:
C_4p...
suppose we are working on a step potential problem, and two transmitted wave functions,corresponding to one particle, are obtained. Let's name them ##|1>## and ##|2>##. How can we interpret physically the case where ##<1|2>##=##-<2|1>##? or in position...
Summary: The transition Sn(s, gray) ⇌ Sn(s, white) is in equilibrium at 18°C and 1 atm pressure. If ΔS = 8.811K mol for the transition at 18°C and if the densities are 5.75 g/cm3 for gray tin and 7.28 g/cm3 for white tin, calculate the transition temperature under 100 atm pressure
The...
Suppose, I have a Markov Chain as follows:
##S=\{1, 2\}##
##
\alpha = \begin{bmatrix}
0.5&0.5\end{bmatrix}
##
##
P =
\begin{bmatrix}
0.5&0.5\\
0&1
\end{bmatrix}
##
And, the following data regarding 5 steps of Markov Chain taken 12 times:
Steps 1 2 3 4 5...
I just discovered this website and want to thank everyone who is willing to contribute some of their time to help me. I appreciate it more than you know
First off, assume that state 1 is Chinese and that state 2 is Greek, and state 3 is Italian.
A student never eats the same kind of food for 2...
Hi guys,
I'm having an issue at the minute with rolled coil steel, cracking and fracturing when being rolled into a profile. The material certs are within ISO specification, i.e. chemical composition analysis and the mechanical properties etc.
The carbon equivalent may be a little high, but...