Why are the d and f orbitals in transition metals considered localized?

In summary, d and f orbitals in transition metals are considered localized due to their position in the inner shells (n-1 and n-2) and their limited shielding from the nuclear charge. This results in a shrinking of the orbitals as the sub-shell filling increases, leading to lower oxidation states and less reactivity in comparison to earlier elements in the d-block.
  • #1
Rzbs
52
11
TL;DR Summary
Why are d and f orbitals localized?
Why d and f orbitals in transition metals considered localize?
Is it an experimetal result that d and f orbitals are more near to nuclea than s orbital in transition metals or there is another reason for considering them localized in a solid?
 
Physics news on Phys.org
  • #2
d and f orbitals are orbital in inner shells (n-1 and n-2, respectively), hence they are more localized in the inner of the atoms. The precise size depends also on the filling of the sub-shells. electrons in d- and f- orbitals hardly shield each other from the nuclear charge. Hence, as the filling of the sub-shell increases, the electrons see an increasingly higher effective nuclear charge, which leads to a shrinking of the obitals. Therefore, e.g. the noble metals have relatively low oxidation states and are little reactive in comparison to the earlier elements in the d-block.
 
  • #3
Thanks
 

Related to Why are the d and f orbitals in transition metals considered localized?

1. Why are the d and f orbitals in transition metals considered localized?

The d and f orbitals in transition metals are considered localized because they have a lower energy level compared to the s and p orbitals. This means that they are closer to the nucleus and are less likely to interact with other atoms or molecules.

2. What is the significance of the localization of d and f orbitals in transition metals?

The localization of d and f orbitals in transition metals allows for the formation of strong metallic bonds. This results in the unique properties of transition metals, such as high melting and boiling points, malleability, and conductivity.

3. How does the localization of d and f orbitals affect the reactivity of transition metals?

The localization of d and f orbitals in transition metals makes them less reactive compared to other elements. This is because the electrons in these orbitals are tightly bound and require a significant amount of energy to be removed or shared with other atoms.

4. Can the localization of d and f orbitals in transition metals be altered?

Yes, the localization of d and f orbitals in transition metals can be altered by applying external energy, such as heat or light. This can cause the electrons to move to higher energy levels and become more reactive.

5. Are all transition metals characterized by localized d and f orbitals?

No, not all transition metals have localized d and f orbitals. Some transition metals, such as scandium and zinc, do not have any d or f electrons and are characterized by their s and p orbitals. These elements are known as "non-transition" metals.

Similar threads

  • Atomic and Condensed Matter
Replies
5
Views
2K
  • Biology and Chemistry Homework Help
Replies
2
Views
1K
Replies
5
Views
4K
Replies
1
Views
2K
  • Quantum Physics
Replies
18
Views
1K
  • Advanced Physics Homework Help
Replies
5
Views
2K
  • Atomic and Condensed Matter
Replies
0
Views
276
Replies
2
Views
1K
Replies
6
Views
2K
  • Atomic and Condensed Matter
Replies
1
Views
2K
Back
Top