i understand why λ_min exists but why λ_max?
Polarizers only work within a certain range because they are designed to block and transmit light waves that vibrate in a specific direction. They are made up of microscopic crystals that are aligned in a specific direction, and can only effectively block light waves that are perpendicular to this alignment. Beyond a certain range, the light waves are not aligned in a way that can be effectively blocked by the polarizer, and thus it appears to not work.
The range of wavelengths that polarizers can effectively block depends on the specific type of polarizer and its orientation. Generally, they can block light waves between 400-700 nanometers, which is the visible light spectrum. However, some polarizers may also be able to block infrared and ultraviolet light waves.
Polarizers work by selectively absorbing light waves that are vibrating in a certain direction, while allowing others to pass through. This is achieved through the alignment of microscopic crystals within the polarizer, which act as filters for the incoming light waves. Light waves that are perpendicular to the alignment of the crystals are absorbed, while those that are parallel are able to pass through.
No, polarizers can only effectively block light waves that are oscillating in a specific direction. They are most commonly used to block visible light waves, but may also be able to block some infrared and ultraviolet light waves. However, they cannot block all types of light waves, such as radio waves or microwaves.
Polarizers have many practical applications, including in sunglasses, camera lenses, and LCD screens. They are also used in scientific experiments to study the properties of light, and in polarizing microscopes to enhance the visibility of certain substances. In addition, polarizers are used in various industrial processes, such as in the production of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and in the detection of stress in materials.