I am trying to understand how exactly electric and magnetic fields work. So far this is my understanding. A particle which has charge has an electric field around it. If the charged particle moves, it forms a magnetic field with its force lines perpendicular to direction of the movement. If this charged particle were an electron and it were to orbit a nucleus of an atom, then it would create a magnetic field perpendicular to the line between the electron and the nucleus. Now, in a normal piece of matter, there is not just one electron and there is not just one nucleus for those electrons so generally they tend to cancel out. Except for ferromagnetic materials where the electrons in orbit around different nuclei somehow line up to create a macro magnetic field. (I understand this is because these materials have partially filled outer shells which mean that due to Hund's rule, the electrons are more likely to have same spin direction. But I don't understand why materials above this proton number (still with partially filled shells) cannot have ferromagnetic property?). If there's anything wrong there, please point out. Moving on. What I don't understand: when we apply a voltage across a conductor, the charged particles within it tend to move to the end which negates the voltage. OK, but why does this movement create a magnetic field which is CIRCULAR and not RADIALLY outward? Since the electrons are generally moving in 1 direction at a macro level, the magnetic field induced should be perpendicular to this direction in macro level. No? This is obviously not true and I am trying to find out why it is not true. What am I missing?