Calculas Definition and 24 Discussions

Lambda calculus (also written as λ-calculus) is a formal system in mathematical logic for expressing computation based on function abstraction and application using variable binding and substitution. It is a universal model of computation that can be used to simulate any Turing machine. It was introduced by the mathematician Alonzo Church in the 1930s as part of his research into the foundations of mathematics.
Lambda calculus consists of constructing lambda terms and performing reduction operations on them. In the simplest form of lambda calculus, terms are built using only the following rules:

producing expressions such as: (λx.λy.(λz.(λx.z x) (λy.z y)) (x y)). Parentheses can be dropped if the expression is unambiguous. For some applications, terms for logical and mathematical constants and operations may be included.
The reduction operations include:

If De Bruijn indexing is used, then α-conversion is no longer required as there will be no name collisions. If repeated application of the reduction steps eventually terminates, then by the Church–Rosser theorem it will produce a β-normal form.
Variable names are not needed if using a universal lambda function, such as Iota and Jot, which can create any function behavior by calling it on itself in various combinations.

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  1. Trey Chandler

    Need help solving this trapezoidal problem

    This is my attempt at the problem I'm pretty sure the answer is supposed to be in gallons but I don't know what I'm doing clearly.
  2. S

    I Calculus- Area between two curves (minimize it)

    Hi, This is my first question here, so please apologise me if something is amiss. I have two curves such that Wa = f(k,Ea,dxa) and Wb = f(k,Eb,dxb). I need to minimize the area between these two curves in terms of Eb in the bounded limit of k=0 and k=pi/dx. So to say, all the variables can...
  3. R

    B A proof of the fundamental theorem of calculus

    is there a rigorous version of this proof of fundamental theorem of calculus?if yes,what is it?and who came up with it? i sort of knew this short proof of the fundamental theorem of calculus since a long while...but never actually saw it anywhere in books or any name associated with it. i know...
  4. Z

    Differential Equation with an Initial condition

    Homework Statement x(dy/dx) = 3y +x4cos(x), y(2pi)=0 Homework Equations N/A The Attempt at a Solution I've tried a couple different ways to make this separable, but you always carry over a 1/dx or 1/dy term and I can never fully separate this. I've also tried to do a Bernoulli differential...
  5. navneet9431

    Evaluating This limit

    <Moderator's note: Moved from a technical forum and thus no template.> $$\lim_{x\rightarrow 0} (x-tanx)/x^3$$ I solve it like this, $$\lim_{x\rightarrow 0}1/x^2 - tanx/x^3=\lim_{x\rightarrow 0}1/x^2 - tanx/x*1/x^2$$ Now using the property $$\lim_{x\rightarrow 0}tanx/x=1$$,we have ...
  6. Z

    Kinematics in Cylindrical Coordinates

    Homework Statement A small bead of mass m slides on a frictionless cylinder of radius R which lies with its cylindrical axis horizontal. At t = 0 , when the bead is at (R,0), vz = 0 and the bead has an initial angular momentum Lo < mR sqrt(Rg) about the axis of the cylinder where g is the...
  7. L

    Pressure and Volume -- are the growth/decay rates exponential?

    Homework Statement forumlate if its growth/decay is exponential I have equation that i intergrated and found Pressure over volume = work done of pressure P = 3.2c^-1.4 f(v) = -8v^-0.4 i set limits of 10x10^-6 --> 100x10^-6 and 10x10^-6 --> 100x10^-6 but i increase both values by 20x10^-6 every...
  8. M

    B Understanding the basics of integration

    I tried learning calculus using the book by Spivak.In this text, while introducing integrals the author explained a lot about partitioning the area under the curve and defined the integral.The way I understood this is, as we increase the number of divisions in the partition the lower sum and the...
  9. A different perspective to derivatives rather than slopes-3b1b

    A different perspective to derivatives rather than slopes-3b1b

    A different perspective to derivatives.
  10. T

    Is this derivative in terms of tensors correct?

    Homework Statement Solve this, $$\frac{\partial}{\partial x^{\nu}}\frac{3}{(q.x)^3}$$ where q is a constant vector. Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution $$\frac{\partial}{\partial x^{\nu}}\frac{3}{(q.x)^3}=3\frac{\partial(q.x)^{-3}}{\partial (q.x)}*\frac{\partial (q.x)}{\partial...
  11. YoungPhysicist

    B Is this a valid proof?

    Recently I came up with a proof of “ for a nth degree polynomial, there will be n roots” Since the derivative of a point will only be 0 on the vertex of that function,and a nth degree function, suppose ##f(x)##has n-1 vertexes, ##f’(x)## must have n-1 roots. Is the proof valid?
  12. T

    What does “Media Upgrade” mean in Thomas' Calculus textbook?

    What is the difference between: THOMAS' CALCULUS, media UPGRADE (11TH EDITION) [ISBN-13 9780321489876] and THOMAS' CALCULUS (11TH EDITION) [ISBN-13 9780321185587]? could you provide detailed answer please? what does the title-addition "Media Upgrade" mean and what changes does it make on the...
  13. Scrope

    Multi variable Limit

    Homework Statement <----- The question Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution Had this on a test today, honestly not sure how to evaluate. I know you can pass the limit to the inside of arctan but I can't see how the inside goes to...
  14. bornofflame

    [MultiVarCalc] Find the volume of the solid

    Homework Statement Find the volume of the solid between the cone ##z = \sqrt{x^2 + y^2}## and the paraboloid ##z = 12 - x^2 - y^2##. Homework Equations ##x^2 + y^2 = r^2## The Attempt at a Solution I drew a simple diagram to start off with to visualize the solid formed by the intersection of...
  15. Aniket13

    Area of common surface of two bubbles

    What will be the area of common surface of two identical bubbles of radius R , i know there common surface will be flat as the radius of curvature of comman surface will tends to Infinity , but how do i relate with area of flat surface I tried to use Energy = Surface tension * area And then...
  16. H

    I Equality of two particular solutions of 2nd order linear ODE

    I got the following two integral for the a particular solution of a 2nd order linear ODE $$(D-a)(D-b)y = g(x)$$ by using inverse operators ##\frac{1}{D-a}## and ##\frac{1}{D-b}##. The two different integrals are obtained by operating these operators in different order on y to get a particular...
  17. EastWindBreaks

    Error propagation, is this correct?

    Homework Statement given E is constant, find the uncertainty in the angular frequency, ω. can someone please check my work? Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution
  18. J

    Analytic Integration of Function Containing the Exponential of an Exponential

    Homework Statement Can this function be integrated analytically? ##f=\exp \left(-\frac{e^{-2 \theta } \left(a \left(b^2 \left(e^{2 \theta }-1\right)^2 L^2+16\right)-32 \sqrt{a} e^{\theta }+16 e^{2 \theta }\right)}{b L^4}\right),## where ##a##, ##b## and ##L## are some real positive...
  19. J

    A Analytical Integration of a Difficult Function

    Is it possible to integrate the following function analytically? ##\int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{\exp{-(\frac{A}{\tau}+B\tau+\frac{A}{\beta-\tau})}}{\sqrt{\tau(\beta-\tau)}}d\tau,## where ##A##, ##B## and ##\beta## are real numbers. What sort of coordinate transformation makes the integral bounded...
  20. Alex Salazar

    Schools Can I take College Algebra and Trig at the same time?

    Hello everyone, After about 6 years I'm finally getting out of the military in May and start going to school full time starting in the fall. I want to do engineering, but I know I'm behind in math and am worried about starting calculus. I want to improve my math by taking both College Algebra...
  21. J

    I Non-Integrable Function

    Hi All, I am wondering if the function below is Integrable: $$\frac{\exp{(-\frac{1}{2}(u-2)^2-2u^2)}}{u-2}$$ When I work it out on computer, the integral is finite from -Inf to Inf. But clearly it has a pole at u=2. Is this pole integrable? If yes, what kind of coordinate transform is...
  22. Delta31415

    Newton's method and complex roots

    1) the problem I understand Newton's method and I was able to find all the real roots of the function.However, I don't understand how to find the complex roots. I know that z=x+yi, and that I can plug in z for the formula. However I, don't know how to change the function (...
  23. Summer95

    I Can anyone evaluate this integral?

    Hello All! I am trying to solve the simple pendulum without using a small angle approximation. But I end up with this integral: $$\int_{\frac{\pi}{4}}^{\theta}\frac{d\theta}{\sqrt{cos(\theta)-\frac{\sqrt{2}}{2}}}$$ Is this possible to evaluate? If so, could I get a hint about what methods to...
  24. J

    Comparison test

    http://‪C:\Users\johny\Downloads\q4.jpg 1. Homework Statement Hi, so the question is I have to tell if this integral diverges or converges.(without solving it) integral(1/(e^x sqrt(x)))dx from 1 to +inf Homework Equations integration techniques. The Attempt at a Solution my answer: let 1/e^x...