What is Einstein summation: Definition and 28 Discussions
In mathematics, especially in applications of linear algebra to physics, the Einstein notation or Einstein summation convention is a notational convention that implies summation over a set of indexed terms in a formula, thus achieving notational brevity. As part of mathematics it is a notational subset of Ricci calculus; however, it is often used in applications in physics that do not distinguish between tangent and cotangent spaces. It was introduced to physics by Albert Einstein in 1916.
I know that if ##\eta_{\alpha'\beta'}=\Lambda^\mu_{\alpha'} \Lambda^\nu_{\beta'} \eta_{\alpha\beta}##
then the matrix equation is
$$ (\eta) = (\Lambda)^T\eta\Lambda $$
I have painstakingly verified that this is indeed true, but I am not sure why, and what the rules are (e.g. the ##(\eta)## is in...
Hi
For an operator A we have Aψn = anψn ; the matrix elements of the operator A are given by Amn= anδmn
My question is : is this an abuse of Einstein summation convention or is that convention not used in QM ?
Thanks
Hi
If i have a vector r = ( x1 , x2 , x3) then i can write r2 as xixi where the i is summed over because it occurs twice. Now is xixi the same as xi2 ? I have come across an example where they are used as equivalent but i am confused because xi2 seems to be the square of just one component of r...
Attempted Solution:
$$a_i \, b_j \, c_k \, \epsilon_{ij \ell} \, \epsilon_{3k \ell}$$
$$a_i\, b_j\, c_k\, (\delta_{i3} \, \delta_{jk} - \, \delta_{ik}\, \delta_{j3})$$
Beyond this, though, I am quite lost. I know I am very close to the answer, but seeing this many terms can become fairly...
If I see ##f(x_ie_i)## I assume it means ##f(\Sigma x_ie_i)## (summing in the domain of f) but what if I instead wanted to write ##\Sigma f(x_ie_i)## (summing in the range)?
Is there a way to distinguish between these in Einstein’s summation notation?
Homework Statement
I know that by definition Γijkei=∂ej/∂xk implies that Γmjk=em ⋅ ∂ej/∂xk (e are basis vectors, xk is component of basis vector). Can I write it in the following form? Γjjk=ej ⋅ ∂ej/∂xk Why or why not?
Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution
Homework Statement
I am unsure as to how to write the dot product in terms of the summation notation? May you please explain?
Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution
Homework Statement
The question asks us to write down the matrix represented by the following summation.
2. Homework Equations
The question summation...
$$\sum_{j,k=1}^{3} a_{ij}b_{jk}x_{k}$$
The Attempt at a Solution
$$
\sum_{j,k=1}^{3} a_{ij}b_{jk}x_{k} =...
Homework Statement
My question is regarding a single step in a solution to a given problem. The step begins at:
##\large \frac{\partial \alpha _j}{\partial x ^i}
\frac{\partial x^i}{y^p}
\frac{\partial x^j}{\partial y^q} -
\frac{\partial \alpha _j}{\partial x ^i}
\frac{\partial x^i}{\partial...
I have been looking through some notes on fermion wavefunction operators and noticed some summations involving indexes repeated 3 times.I know this is not allowed when using the Einstein summation convention. So my question is : is the Einstein convention not used in Quantum mechanics ? and do...
Homework Statement
I have the following equation
Aab= c ua ub
Where Aab is a rank 2 tensor and ua is a vector and c is a scalar and a,b = {0,1,2,3}. I know both Aab , ua and ua
I want to find c explicitly but I don't know how to interpret or calculate
c = Aab / ( ua ub )
Does anyone...
Homework Statement
Hi
When I want to take the divergence of a rank-2 tensor (matrix), then I have to apply the divergence operator to each column. In other words, I get
\nabla \cdot M = (d_x M_{xx} + d_y M_{yx} + d_zM_{zx}\,\, ,\,\, d_x M_{xy} + d_y M_{yy} + d_zM_{zy}\,\,,\,\, d_x M_{xz} +...
I can do this derivation the old fashioned way, but am having trouble doing it with einstein summation notation.
Since \vec{B}=\nabla \times \vec{a}
\vec{B}=\mu_{0}/4\pi (\nabla \times (m \times r)r^{-3}))
4\pi \vec{B}/\mu_{0}=\epsilon_{ijk} \nabla_{j}(\epsilon_{klm} m_{l} r_{m} r^{-3})...
prove the identity $$\nabla\times(f\cdot\vec{v})=(\nabla f) \times \vec{v} + f \cdot \nabla \times \vec{v}$$
I can do the proof with normal vector calculus, but I am in a tensor intensive course and would like to do this with
einstein summation notation, but am having some trouble since I am...
Greetings,
This is just an opinion question about notations.
Having learned the basics of bra-ket notation and using the ESC, as far as I can tell, ESC is just plain better, at least when dealing with finite bases. Using bras and kets, you can represent and manipulate states using...
So, I realize the basic theory behind Einstein Summation Convention is that any repeated set of indices implicitly indicates a sum over those indices. However, what if an index is repeated three times?
For example, my mathematics professor posted this problem:
εijkajaj = ?
As you can...
My understanding of the Einstein Summation convention is that you sum over the repeated indices. But when I look at the metric tensor for a flat space I know that
g^{λ}_{λ} = 1
But the summation convention makes me think that it should equal the trace of the matrix g_{μσ}. So it should...
Homework Statement
Let \vec{A}(\vec{r})and \vec{B}(\vec{r}) be vector fields. Show that
Homework Equations
\vec{\nabla}\bullet(\vec{A}\vec{B})=(\vec{A}\bullet\vec{\nabla})\vec{B}+\vec{B}(\vec{\nabla}\bullet\vec{A})
This is EXACTLY how it is written in Ch 3 Problem 2 of Schwinger...
Homework Statement
Ok so I'm meant to answer:
To what scalar or vector quantities do the following expressions in suffix notation correspond? (expand and sum where possible).
1) aibjci
2) aibjcjdi
3) dijaiaj
4) dijdij
5) eijkaibk
6)eijkdij
Homework Equations
The...
hi i am just reading some notes on tesor analysis and in the notes itself while representing vectors in terms of basis using einstein summation notation the author switches between subsripts and superscripts at times. are there any different in these notation. if so what are they and when should...
Homework Statement
Basically need to use einstein's summation convention to find the grad of (mod r)^n and a.r where a is a vector and r = (x,y,z)
Homework Equations
The Attempt at a Solution
Not sure where to begin really.. :S
grad (mod r)^n= (d/dx, d/dy, d/dz) of root (X1^2...
Homework Statement
Using the Einstein summation convention, prove:
A\bulletB\timesC = C\bulletA\timesB
Homework Equations
The Attempt at a Solution
I tried to follow an example from my notes, but I don't entirely understand it. Would it be possible to find out if what I've...
Homework Statement
Evaluate the following sums, implied according to the Einstein Summation Convention.
\begin{array}{l}
\delta _{ii} = \\
\varepsilon _{12j} \delta _{j3} = \\
\varepsilon _{12k} \delta _{1k} = \\
\varepsilon _{1jj} = \\
\end{array}
The Attempt at a...
Einstein Summation Convention / Lorentz "Boost"
Homework Statement
I'm struggling to understand the Einstein Summation Convention - it's the first time I've used it. Would someone be able to explain it in the following context?
Lorentz transformations and rotations can be expressed in...
Given U^k_i, the components of U is a delta function i.e for i=k U^i_k =1,
to prove it is invariant under Lorentz transformation~~
I don't know how to express it in Einstein summation notation, I am very confused with the upper-lower index, is it right to write the transformation in this...
From http://mathworld.wolfram.com i see that the integral notation was "the symbol was invented by Leibniz and chosen to be a stylized script "S" to stand for 'summation'. "
So from that i figure integrals are just summations. So what's the difference from Einstein Summation, where "repeated...