In mathematics, a manifold is a topological space that locally resembles Euclidean space near each point. More precisely, an n-dimensional manifold, or n-manifold for short, is a topological space with the property that each point has a neighborhood that is homeomorphic to an open subset of n-dimensional Euclidean space.
One-dimensional manifolds include lines and circles, but not figure eights. Two-dimensional manifolds are also called surfaces. Examples include the plane, the sphere, and the torus, and also the Klein bottle and real projective plane.
The concept of a manifold is central to many parts of geometry and modern mathematical physics because it allows complicated structures to be described in terms of well-understood topological properties of simpler spaces. Manifolds naturally arise as solution sets of systems of equations and as graphs of functions. The concept has applications in computer-graphics and augmented-reality given the need to associate pictures (texture) to coordinates (e.g. CT scans).
Manifolds can be equipped with additional structure. One important class of manifolds are differentiable manifolds; their differentiable structure allows calculus to be done. A Riemannian metric on a manifold allows distances and angles to be measured. Symplectic manifolds serve as the phase spaces in the Hamiltonian formalism of classical mechanics, while four-dimensional Lorentzian manifolds model spacetime in general relativity.
The study of manifolds requires working knowledge of calculus and topology.
I am thinking why the following holds: Let f be a smooth function with f: Ω⊂R^m→R. Why is the set {(x,y)∈Ω×R|y=f(x)} a manifold?
Would be helpful if you are providing me some guidance or tips:)
Suppose $$ D=\{ (x,0) \in \mathbb{R}^2 : x \in \mathbb{R}\} \cup \{ (0,y) \in \mathbb{R}^2 : y \in \mathbb{R} \}$$ is a subset of $$\mathbb{R}^2 $$ with subspace topology. Can this be a 1d or 2d manifold?
Thank you!
Suppose you have the map $$\pi : \mathbb{R}^{n+1}-\{0\} \longrightarrow \mathbb{P}^n$$.
I need to prove that the map is differentiable.
But this map is a chart of $$\mathbb{P}^n$$ so by definition is differentiable?
MENTOR NOTE: fixed Latex mistakes double $ signs and backslashes needed for math
Hi,
a clarification about the following: consider a smooth curve ##γ:\mathbb R→\mathbb R^2##. It is a injective smooth map from ##\mathbb R## to ##\mathbb R^2##. The image of ##\gamma## (call it ##\Gamma##) is itself a smooth manifold with dimension 1 and a regular/embedded submanifold of...
<Moderator note: thread split from https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/speed-of-light.1012508/#post-6601734 >
Is a manifold with a boundary still a manifold?
Hi,
I am missing the point about the application of Darboux theorem to symplectic manifold case as explained here Darboux Theorem.
We start from a symplectic manifold of even dimension ##n=2m## with a symplectic differential 2-form ##w## defined on it. Since by definition the symplectic 2-form...
I have to find the center manifold of the following system
\begin{align}
\dot{x}_1&=x_2 \\
\dot{x}_2&=-\frac{1}{2}x_1^2
\end{align}
which has a critical point at ##x_0=\begin{bmatrix}0 & 0\end{bmatrix}##. Its linearization at that point is
\begin{align}
D\mathbf {f}(\mathbf {x_0}) =...
First time looking at differential forms. What is the difference of the forms over R^n and on manifolds? Does the exterior product and derivative have different properties? (Is it possible to exaplain this difference without using the tangent space?)
String Theory and related theories like M Theory have strong constraints in the number of dimensions where they can be formulated (for example, in the case of M theory, it is only allowed in 11D or in the case of bosonic string theory is only allowed in 26D.
Since string theory and related...
Let's play pretend a progressive alien civilisation contacts us and an irrelevant conversation begins. Later on, an alien-scientist says: "by the way, the physical reality contains 9 dimensions. I heard a famous human theorist announced, that it should be 4. You have to touch up."
Could the GTR...
I was wondering if anyone knew of a name for such a set, namely a subset S \subseteq \mathbb{R}^n which at every point x \in S there exists no open subset U of \mathbb{R}^n containing x such that S \cap U is homeomorphic to either \mathbb{R}^m or the half-space \mathbb{H}^m = \{(y_1,...,y_m)...
"The group given by ## H = \left\{ \left( \begin{array} { c c } { e ^ { 2 \pi i \theta } } & { 0 } \\ { 0 } & { e ^ { 2 \pi i a \theta } } \end{array} \right) | \theta \in \mathbb { R } \right\} \subset \mathbb { T } ^ { 2 } = \left\{ \left( \begin{array} { c c } { e ^ { 2 \pi i \theta } } & { 0...
I try to understand (almost) complex manifolds and related stuff. Am I right that the condition for almost complexity simply is that the metric locally can be written in terms of the complex coordinates ##z##, i.e. ##g = g(z_1, ... z_m)## (complex conjugate coordinates must not appear)? These...
Suppose I have a R^3 manifold that goes into R^3 charts, if that is possible. The manifold has curvature and is Riemannian and has a metric. I want to eliminate all curvature in R^3 charts, so I want to add another dimension to the manifold, I would extract all the curvature information from the...
[I urge the viewer to read the full post before trying to reply]
I'm watching Schuller's lectures on gravitation on youtube. It's mentioned that spacetime is modeled as a topological manifold (with a bunch of additional structure that's not relevant to this question).
A topological manifold is...
I am trying to understand the following derivation in my lecture notes. Given an n-dimensional manifold ##M## and a parametrized curve ##\gamma : (-\epsilon, \epsilon) \rightarrow M : t \mapsto \gamma(t)##, with ##\gamma(0) = \mathbf{P} \in M##.
Also define an arbitrary (dummy) scalar field...
Edit, the vector that rotates below might not rotate at all.
Please forgive any mistaken statements or sloppiness on my part below.
I think that by some measure a helicoid can be considered a smooth curved 2 dimensional surface except for a line of points?
Consider not the helicoid above...
This is a very simple topology question. Consider two infinite lines crossing at one point. Now, I know that this is not a 1D manifold, and I know the usual argument (in the neighbourhood of the intersection, we don't have a a line, or that if we remove the intersection point, we end up with...
I was wondering if it was possible to determine the size of a manifold globally. Suppose I had a manifold that sits in 3 dimensions. I could construct a Euclidean space around in the same space and be able to say things of the dimensions right?
I was reading about differentiable manifolds on wikipedia, and in the definition it never specifies that the differentiable manifold has a metric on it. I understand that you can set up limits of functions in topological spaces without a metric being defined, but my understanding of derivatives...
Say you have some n dimensional manifold embedded in a higher space. what is the best way to describe or define a point on a manifold with or without coordinates. How could I do this either intrinsically or using the embedded space. Would you use the tangent space somehow using basis vectors?
I am trying to construct a particular manifold locally using a metric, Can I simply take the inner product of my basis vectors to first achieve some metric.
Hi,
I'm a bit confused about the locally euclidean request involved in the definition of manifold (e.g. manifold ): every point in ##X## has an open neighbourhood homeomorphic to the Euclidean space ##E^n##.
As far as I know the definition of homeomorphism requires to specify a topology for...
Hi
I am currently trying to learn about smooth manifolds (Whitneys embedding theorem and Stokes theorem are core in the course I am taking). However, progress for me is slow. I remember that integration theory and probability became a lot easier for me after I learned some measure theory. This...
Is there a generalized form of the Fourier transform applicable to all manifolds, such that the Fourier transform in Euclidean space is a special case?
I am learning the basics of differential geometry and I came across tangent vectors. Let's say we have a manifold M and we consider a point p in M. A tangent vector ##X## at p is an element of ##T_pM## and if ##\frac{\partial}{\partial x^ \mu}## is a basis of ##T_pM##, then we can write $$X =...
Hello,
In the sources I have looked into (textbooks and articles on differential geometry), I have not found any abstract definition of the electromagnetic fields. It seems that at most the electric field is defined as
$$\bf{E}(t,\bf{x}) = \frac{1}{4\pi \epsilon_0} \int \rho(t,\bf{x}')...
Let ##M## be an ##n##-dimensional (smooth) manifold and ##(U,\phi)## a chart for it. Then ##\phi## is a function from an open of ##M## to an open of ##\mathbb{R}^n##. The book I'm reading claims that coordinates, say, ##x^1,\ldots,x^n## are not really functions from ##U## to ##\mathbb{R}##, but...
Consider ##X## and ##Y## two vector fields on ##M ##. Fix ##x## a point in ##M## , and consider the integral
curve of ##X## passing through ##x## . This integral curve is given by the local flow of ##X## , denoted
##\phi _ { t } ( p ) .##
Now consider $$t \mapsto a _ { t } \left( \phi _ { t } (...
Hi, I'm aware of a typical example of injective immersion that is not a topological embedding: figure 8
##\beta: (-\pi, \pi) \to \mathbb R^2##, with ##\beta(t)=(\sin 2t,\sin t)##
As explained here an-injective-immersion-that-is-not-a-topological-embedding the image of ##\beta## is compact in...
I've been studying the Witten-Reshetikhin-Turaev (WRT) invariant of 3-manifolds but have almost zero background in physics. The WRT of a 3-manifold is closely related to the Chern-Simons (CS) invariant via the volume conjecture. My question is, what does the CS invariant of a 3-manifold...
I'm reading "The Geometry of Physics" by Frankel. Exercise 1.3(1) asks what would be wrong in defining ##||X||## in an ##M^n## by
$$||X||^2 = \sum_j (X_U^j)^2$$ The only problem I can see is that that definition is not independent of the chosen coordinate systems and thus not intrinsic to...
Hi,
a basic question related to differential manifold definition.
Leveraging on the atlas's charts ##\left\{(U_i,\varphi_i)\right\} ## we actually define on ##M## the notion of differentiable function. Now take a specific chart ##\left(U,\varphi \right)## and consider a function ##f## defined...
Hey,
we had in the lecures the following:
Let M and N be smooth manifolds, and dim(M)=dim(N)=n, while $$x^i$$ and $$ y^i$$ are coordinate functions around $$p\in M$$ respective $$F(p) \in N$$, then we get for the pullback of F
Which entries has the matrix we take the determinant of? I thaught...
I'm reading a book on Lie groups and one of the first examples is on SL(2,R). It says that every element of it can be written as the product of a symmetric matrix and a rotation matrix, which I can see, but It also makes the assertion that the symmetric matrix can be parameterized by a...
Some models of gravity, inspired by the main theme of spacetime fabric of Classical GR, treat the metric of the manifold and the connection as independent entities. I want to study this theory further but I am unable to find any paper on this, on ariXiv atleast.
I will be very thankful if...
<Moderator's note: Moved from a homework forum.>
Homework Statement
From this paper.
Let ##L## be the Jacobian operator of a two-sided compact surface embedded in a three-maniold ##(M,g)##, ##\Sigma \subset M##, and defined by
$$L(t)=\Delta_{\Sigma(t)}+ \text{Ric}( ν_{t} , ν_{t}...
Given S is a submanifold of M such that every smooth function on S can be extended to a smooth function to a neighborhood W of S in M. I want to show that S is embedded submanifold.
My attempt: Suppose S is not embedded. Then there is a point p that is not contained in any slice chart. Since a...
I want to show that a closed unit ball is manifold with boundary and I attempted as uploaded. But I am not happy with the way I showed the boundary chart is injective. Am I right?
Because it is a closed space, can it make sense to fill a Calabi_Yau manifold with an ideal gas and consider waves from a point disturbance?
Would the Ricci-flat condition of Calabi-Yau manifolds have anything to say about possible sound waves?
Thanks!
I have a surface defined by the quadratic relation:$$0=\phi^2t^4-x^2-y^2-z^2$$Where ##\phi## is a constant with units of ##km## ##s^{-2}##, ##t## is units of ##s## (time) and x, y and z are units of ##km## (space). The surface looks like this:
Since the formula depends on the absolute value of...
Hello, an engineer here that is trying to understand more in topology for some mechanics ideas. It seems to me that any closed (regular) manifold in 3d Euclidean space should be able to be describe uniquely by the combination of the following 1) volume [1 real], 2) centroid [3 reals], and 3)...
Hello! Can someone explain to me why does a parallelizable manifold implies zero Riemann tensor? In the book I read this is mentioned but not proved. This would imply that parallel-transporting a vector would be path independent. But I am not sure how to show it. Thank you!
Hello! The cohomology ring on an M-dim manifold is defined as ##H^*(M)=\oplus_{r=1}^mH^r(M)## and the product on ##H^*## is provided by the wedge product between cohomology classes i.e. ## [a]## ##\wedge## ##[c]## ##= [a \wedge c]##, where ##[a]\in H^r(M)##, ##[c]\in H^p(M)## and ##[a \wedge...
Hello.
I was trying to prove that the tangent bundle TM is a smooth manifold with a differentiable structure and I wanted to do it in a different way than the one used by my professor.
I used that TM=M x TpM. So, the question is:
Can the tangent bundle TM be considered as the product manifold...
Can someone tell me how we know that our physical universe is geodesically complete? In response to a question I had about why we assign any meaning to the other side of a black hole’s event horizon (or its interior), I got an answer prompting me to look into the concept of geodesic...