1 mm magnetic shield of pure iron same as 1 cm of mu-metal?

• Jonathan212
In summary, when materials with high permeability are used to shield against low EMF frequencies of the order of 10 Hz, is the effectiveness linearly dependent on thickness and permeability?
Jonathan212
When materials with high permeability are used to shield against low EMF frequencies of the order of 10 Hz, is the effectiveness linearly dependent on thickness and permeability?

In other words, pure iron (mu=200,000) can be 10 times thinner than mu-metal (mu=20,000) for the same result with a complete enclosure like a sphere or cube?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permeability_(electromagnetism)
Had me worried there, as I would have said the relationship was reversed...
Your 'pure iron' figure is for 99.95% iron, hydrogen annealed. Mere 99.8% iron is but~5k.

As I understand it, mu-metal and its kin are easier to shape and hence use. But, a hefty steel box as an outer container is a cost-effective way to mitigate magnetic interference before reaching inner mu-metal layer(s).
Much depends on field strength and frequency, detail outside my experience...

What about the math of it? Material A has permeability a, material B has permeability b, is a spherical enclosure made of A the same as one made of B if the thickness of B is a/b times the thickness of A? What value of magnetic field would you measure inside each exposed to a 10 Hz e/m wave?

Jonathan212 said:
What about the math of it? Material A has permeability a, material B has permeability b, is a spherical enclosure made of A the same as one made of B if the thickness of B is a/b times the thickness of A? What value of magnetic field would you measure inside each exposed to a 10 Hz e/m wave?
I'm not familiar with the "pure iron" example you gave earlier. In our products, we generally use mu-metal shields, sometimes with the netic/co-netic combination to optimize the shielding properties.

Check out the Shielding Tutorials at this website below (we use them for most of our magnetic shielding needs). Click the "ALL ABOUT SHIELDING" link at the top of that web page to get to the long list of their tutorial pages.

http://www.magnetic-shield.com/index.html

Nik_2213
You’ve reversed mu for iron and mu-metal. They are not equivalent because mu-metal saturates at low ambient fields. Iron is less effective at low fields but remains effective at much higher fields.

Jonathan212 and berkeman
I was starting with the wikipedia values for mu that go like this:
 Iron (99.95% pure Fe annealed in H) 200000 Mu-metal 50000 Iron (99.8% pure) 5000

So, nothing reversed. The lack of equivalence sort of answers the question.

All options are open though, the above are just examples. Now what sort of frequencies and intensities are we up against as civilians in cities, where magnetic shielding is relevant?

Well I learned something, I never saw that value before. The answer is yes, you can use a thinner sheet of higher mu material so long as it doesn't saturate in the applied field. If it does, then thicker lower mu material will be more effective.

Nik_2213
Jonathan212 said:
Now what sort of frequencies and intensities are we up against as civilians in cities, where magnetic shielding is relevant?
Can you clarify this? What are you wanting to shield from magnetic fields, and what are the sources of the fields.

Oopsa. Didn't get a notification by email for these later posts. I want to shield a bedroom. Sources would be mains electricity to begin with. No trains nearby, only traffic. Anything else that could be an issue?

Jonathan212 said:
I want to shield a bedroom. Sources would be mains electricity to begin with.
That's problematic. You would need to line the walls with steel plates, probably a couple mm thick.

Is it ok that there is a window?

Jonathan212 said:
Is it ok that there is a window?
No, I'm afraid not. Any openings will let in B-field...

No gaps either. You need a door like a bank vault.

berkeman
How does this relate to Faraday cages having holes?

marcusl
And you do understand that low-frequency E-field shielding is different from low-frequency B-field shielding, and those are different from higher-frequency EM shielding, right?

I’m with Berkeman—you can’t expect us to give you a full education, you’re responsible for your own education and need to research this topic before asking for help. Read up on RF screened rooms (Faraday cages) and magnetic shielding. We can then help clarify a detail or answer a specific question.

I have a degree in electronic engineering but magnetic shielding was never taught and I never researched the subject myself. I'd like to know some numbers for the B-field inside such an enclosure. A room completely encased in 2 mm steel sheet (99.8% iron, see above) where a 10 A, 60 Hz current flows through a single wire outside the enclosure, 5 cm from the sheet. What B-field amplitude do we expect inside? What DC B-field do we expect inside due to the Earth's magnetic field?

Jonathan212 said:
I have a degree in electronic engineering but magnetic shielding was never taught and I never researched the subject myself.
How much E&M did you take? At least in my classes, we covered magnetic fields and how they interact with magnetic materials...
Jonathan212 said:
I'd like to know some numbers for the B-field inside such an enclosure.
Did you read through the application notes that I linked to in post #4 yet?

Almost exclusively microwaves. I looked at that site after my last post (do you work for them by any chance?) and did find a claim that a very thin sheet of a certain material of theirs would reduce the Earth's magnetic field by a factor of 125 or so, but no math is shown. Anyway, a more interesting question is: would it be bad for you if you slept without the Earth's Schumann resonances?

As an EE, you should be able to calculate the fields from a wire. The Wikipedia article on magnetic shielding shows a calculation for a spherical shield, which will get you in the ballpark. Literature from shielding companies (Amuneal, Vacuumshmelze, etc) will give you more info. I really think you can do your own research if you try.

berkeman

1. How does a 1 mm magnetic shield of pure iron compare to a 1 cm of mu-metal?

Both a 1 mm magnetic shield of pure iron and a 1 cm of mu-metal are effective at shielding against magnetic fields. However, mu-metal has a higher permeability, meaning it can absorb more magnetic flux, making it slightly more effective at shielding.

2. Can a 1 mm magnetic shield of pure iron be used in place of a 1 cm of mu-metal?

It is not recommended to use a 1 mm magnetic shield of pure iron in place of a 1 cm of mu-metal. While both materials are effective at shielding, mu-metal has a higher permeability and is specifically designed for magnetic shielding.

3. Are there any disadvantages to using a 1 mm magnetic shield of pure iron?

One potential disadvantage of using a 1 mm magnetic shield of pure iron is that it may not be as effective at shielding against very strong magnetic fields. Additionally, pure iron is more susceptible to corrosion compared to mu-metal.

4. How thick should a magnetic shield be for optimal shielding?

The optimal thickness for a magnetic shield depends on the strength of the magnetic field it is being used to shield against. In general, a thicker shield will provide better shielding, but it is important to consult with a specialist to determine the appropriate thickness for your specific application.

5. Can a 1 mm magnetic shield of pure iron be used for both low and high frequency magnetic fields?

Yes, a 1 mm magnetic shield of pure iron can be used for both low and high frequency magnetic fields. However, mu-metal may be more effective for shielding against high frequency fields due to its higher permeability.

• Electromagnetism
Replies
1
Views
4K
• Electromagnetism
Replies
2
Views
2K
• Introductory Physics Homework Help
Replies
2
Views
960
• Electromagnetism
Replies
2
Views
2K
• High Energy, Nuclear, Particle Physics
Replies
20
Views
16K
• Materials and Chemical Engineering
Replies
12
Views
3K
• Electrical Engineering
Replies
4
Views
2K
Replies
4
Views
2K
• Materials and Chemical Engineering
Replies
1
Views
2K
• Introductory Physics Homework Help
Replies
4
Views
3K