I got some guy who says when a capacitor is fully charged, that half of the input energy from the power source gets lost as heat. Now I do understand the two cap problem (links below), but I think he is wrong because one can use dc switching and inductors to improve the 50% loss of energy. (but he says 1/2 loss is still happening.) I would find it hard to believe that for DL ultracaps/supercapacitors used on EV's/hybrid's for quick storage would be loosing 1/2 of the power to charge them as heat. He's asking me to prove him wrong (he has same links I've listed below), is there any other references that anyone has that I use to back up my argument? http://www.hep.princeton.edu/~mcdonald/examples/twocaps.pdf http://puhep1.princeton.edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/powell_ajp_47_460_79.pdf [Broken] http://puhep1.princeton.edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/mita_ajp_67_737_99.pdf [Broken] Thanks!