1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data It's just an example in the textbook. A vector in cylindrical coordinates. A=arAr+aΦAΦ+azAz to be expressed in cartesian coordinates. Start with the Ax component: Ax=A⋅ax=Arar⋅ax+AΦaΦ⋅ax ar⋅ax=cosΦ aΦ⋅ax=-sinΦ Ax=ArcosΦ - AΦsinΦ Looking at a figure of the unit vectors I get it. At the same time I just don't understand why ArcosΦ isn't enough to get the magnitude of the Ax component.