Difference between X-ray Diffraction techniques and Raman spectroscopy

In summary, XRD and Raman spectroscopy are both non-destructive techniques used to determine the crystal structure of materials. XRD works by emitting x-rays and using Bragg's law, while Raman spectroscopy uses Raman scattering. Raman can reveal vibration frequencies, while XRD measures long range order. Raman can help determine crystal symmetry, but may not provide the complete crystal structure. Vibrational excitation spectra can only be obtained from x-rays with significant effort and specialized instruments.
  • #1
ralden
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Hi everyone, I'm little bit confuse about non destructive techniques such as XRD (X-ray Diffraction) and Raman spectroscopy, I know that both techniques can determine the crystal structure of the certain materials, and also, I know that XRD is working with the principle of emission of x-ray and Bragg's law while Raman spectroscopy is the Raman Scattering (Honestly i don't know much about this techniques), so when my professor ask me, "why you don't use Raman instead of XRD?" so besides of my professor's question my question is what is/are the disadvantage/s and advantage/s of using Raman over XRD?. thank you.
 
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  • #2
I think x ray interact with electrons and with small wavelenght (large wave vector) can reveal the reciprocal space by diffraction while Raman spectroscopy uses radiation with long wavelenght (low energy) which interacts with atoms, molecules or ions and can reveal the vibration frequencies of system by scattering.
 
  • #3
yes you are right, but I'm expecting of a kind of an answers regarding the limitation of using xrd over the raman. (for example xrd only operates/function in a low temperature while raman only operate/function in high temp, but it's just a guess).
 
  • #4
X-ray or (elastic) neutron diffraction measure long range order of the ground state and are therefore very well suited to determining crystal structures.

Raman spectroscopy measures excitations.

These are really quite different things. Selection rules of allowed and forbidden Raman transitions may help in determining the crystal symmetry (space group), but I don't know if you can get the complete crystal structure from Raman.

Unless you go to very significant efforts you cannot get vibrational excitation spectra from x-rays. It is possible, but there are only a hand full of instruments on the planet that can do that.
 

Related to Difference between X-ray Diffraction techniques and Raman spectroscopy

1. What is the difference between X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy?

X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy are both techniques used to analyze the structure of materials. However, they differ in the type of information they provide. X-ray diffraction measures the diffraction pattern of X-rays as they pass through a material, which can be used to determine the arrangement of atoms in a crystal lattice. Raman spectroscopy, on the other hand, measures the scattering of light by a material, providing information about the chemical bonds and molecular vibrations present in a sample.

2. Which technique is better for determining crystal structure?

X-ray diffraction is generally considered the more reliable and accurate technique for determining crystal structures. This is because X-rays have a shorter wavelength than visible light, allowing for more detailed analysis of crystal structures. However, Raman spectroscopy can also provide valuable information about crystal structure, especially in cases where X-ray diffraction is not feasible.

3. Can both techniques be used to analyze the same sample?

Yes, it is possible to use both X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy on the same sample. In fact, using multiple techniques can provide a more comprehensive understanding of the material being analyzed. X-ray diffraction can provide information about the overall crystal structure, while Raman spectroscopy can provide information about the chemical composition and molecular bonds present in the sample.

4. Which technique is better for identifying unknown materials?

Raman spectroscopy is often preferred for identifying unknown materials because it can provide information about the chemical composition of a sample. This is especially useful for identifying organic materials or compounds, which can be difficult to analyze with X-ray diffraction. However, X-ray diffraction can also be used for material identification in some cases, particularly for inorganic materials.

5. Can either technique be used for in situ analysis?

Both X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy can be used for in situ analysis, meaning they can analyze a sample while it is in its natural environment or undergoing a reaction. However, Raman spectroscopy is more commonly used for in situ analysis due to its ability to analyze samples in a non-destructive manner. X-ray diffraction may require the sample to be in a specific form, such as a crystal, for accurate analysis.

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