What is X-ray: Definition and 304 Discussions

An X-ray, or, much less commonly, X-radiation, is a penetrating form of high-energy electromagnetic radiation. Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 10 picometers to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (30×1015 Hz to 30×1018 Hz) and energies in the range 124 eV to 124 keV. X-ray wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and typically longer than those of gamma rays. In many languages, X-radiation is referred to as Röntgen radiation, after the German scientist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, who discovered it on November 8, 1895. He named it X-radiation to signify an unknown type of radiation. Spellings of X-ray(s) in English include the variants x-ray(s), xray(s), and X ray(s).

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  1. T

    Any good textbook on X-ray photoemission?

    I am now engaged in a study of real solids like Pu and Np. I need some knowledge of the X-ray photoemission spectra. Specifically, I need to understand the sudden approximation, the main and satellite peaks, etc. Is there any good reference on these topics? By the way, I do theory.
  2. Albertto

    A Larger X-ray dose in traditional X-ray of head vs. Head CT?

    Does anyone have experience with radiation doses and measurement units in radiology? I was looking at some DICOM metadata... X-ray image of sinuses that include forehead sinus using Philips DigitalDiagnost C50 "Image And Fluoroscopy Area Dose Product" stood out to me since it is measured in...
  3. F

    Chemistry Why Do Sulfurous Compounds Show Different Peaks in X-ray Absorption Spectra?

    Hey guys :) actually my homework was just to research the absorption spectra of some iron compounds and some sulfurus compounds - to which I have the answer. I just dont understand it. In this arcticle, fig 2b: "Phase Composition of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Studied Using Hard X-ray Absorption...
  4. Anisur Rahman

    How Can I Simulate a Narrow Spectrum X-Ray Beam Using MCNP?

    I don't know where is the problem. My supervisor couldn't provide me the actual specification of my X-ray tube. I was asked to simulate the X-ray narrow spectrum beam. I run that code, but it produces nothing. Can anyone help me?
  5. cemtu

    I Kramer's Equation at max Energy for photons is giving Intensity = 0

    IE = KZ(Em – E) where IE is the intensity of photons with energy E, Z is the atomic number of the target, Em is the maximum photon energy, and K is a constant. As pointed out earlier, the maximum possible energy that a bremsstrahlung photon can have is equal to the energy of the incident...
  6. cemtu

    I Why Bremsstrahlung <20keV for Tungsten?

    https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Bremsstrahlung-and-characteristic-radiation-spectra-are-shown-for-a-tungsten-anode-with_fig4_8365056 Fast electrons produce X-rays in the anode of an X-ray tube through two different methods. The first one is the interaction of electrons with the nuclei of...
  7. Wrichik Basu

    I Understanding Ewald's sphere in the context of X-Ray diffraction

    ##\require{physics}##I am trying to understand how the Ewald's sphere works in the context of X-ray diffraction (XRD). I am reading from Kittel's book, as well as a few lecture series. Let me first state what I have learnt in this context (please correct me if I am wrong). For any real lattice...
  8. M

    A Exploring Secondary Particle Generation from X-Ray Collisions in Geant4

    Hello, I need some articles and pictures about secondary particle generation when x-ray(with different energy) collides with silicon and aluminium materials. I am simulating this phenomenon in geant4. I just want to validate my result.
  9. Dario56

    I Questions About Bragg's Law of X-Ray Diffraction

    Bragg's law is schematically shown on the picture: Two parallel and plane waves are shown which propagate towards the crystal. For plane waves, wave fronts are flat planes perpendicular to the wave propagation with infinite size. In reality, there are no plane waves. Nevertheless, they are...
  10. Astronuc

    I What do high-mass X-ray binaries, or HMXBs, tell us?

    Massive stellar pairs spewing X-rays offer a glimpse into the Milky Way's past https://www.space.com/high-mass-x-ray-binaries-birthplace Interjecting - So many things to look at with JWST, we probably need more than just one!
  11. samy4408

    I Question about X-ray power emitted by the Coolidge tube

    hello i found this equation in a course about x rays , and i couldn't find it anywhere else they said that it is the theoretical expression of the energy spectrum , and dφ/dE is variation of the power emitted by the Coolidge tube as a function of the energy of the x ray. but i didn't understand...
  12. G

    I X-ray fluorescence photons question

    Tentatively, I ask in this forum for a qualitative pointer to what end effects one might expect when a gamma energy photon energizes an atom of a substance, and causes fluorescence. It relates to a practical endeavour about using a PIN diode as an X-ray detector, where the device considered...
  13. Melbourne Guy

    Is Kindle X-ray Worth the Extra Work for Authors and Readers?

    I've started adding X-ray to my latest novel, but I can't immediately figure out the benefit to me or readers. On my side, adding peripheral detail to characters and terms triggers a huge amount of work, because I had not elaborated the novel's universe sufficiently to know when everyone is...
  14. Astronuc

    I Ultraluminous X-ray source in the galaxy NGC 55

    https://phys.org/news/2021-11-ultraluminous-x-ray-source-galaxy-ngc.html Spectral and Temporal Properties of Ultra-luminous X-ray Source NGC 55 ULX1 https://arxiv.org/abs/2111.06637 Same paper - https://academic.oup.com/mnras/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/mnras/stab3307/6428406 From...
  15. S

    Medical Different types fluoroscopy modes in X-ray imaging?

    what is fluoroscopy mode in cardiac xray imaging?. simulator shows EP,LF,MF,HI(extra low fluoroscpy, low, medium and highfluoro.what is it actually means?
  16. amjad-sh

    I Why X-ray scattering in crystalline solids is elastic?

    Hello, I am wondering why in all X-ray diffraction experiments used to probe or know the crystal structure of the solid they assume that the scattering process is elastic, e.g, if an X-ray with wave vector ##k\vec{n}## is incident on a sample, it will diffract with a wave vector ##k\vec{n}'## of...
  17. M

    I Transmission through flow cell using small-angle x-ray scattering

    Hello, I plan to run an experiment using SAXS for in-situ solution phase reaction analysis. We will use a glass micro-fluidic chip due to experimental limitation reasons. I am looking for the optimal path length for these channels (fluid channel depth). My understanding is that we need to...
  18. L

    Calculate number of photons absorbed

    I've tried to solve this by calculating the number of photons. I've done this by calculating the energy of one photon, taking h*c divided by lambda. h*c is 1240 eV*nm and lambda is 10 nm. This gives me 124 eV. I then divide the total energy by the energy of one photon, 50 keV/ 124 = 403 photons...
  19. K

    Could x-ray or other high energy device alter rice grains?

    I almost always buy food from local market but recently I want to buy some rice (and probably other foods later) overseas which will be imported through our customs, so most likely the food will be scanned through x-ray or other high energy devices that I don't know, could rice grains or other...
  20. PandaKitten

    Working out Plane Structure via Powder X-ray Diffraction Multiplicand

    Below is the measured values for the Debye rings I obtained. I have to multiply the ratio (which is (sin^2(theta_n))/(sin^2(theta_min))) by a multiplicand until I get an integer. However for the multiplicand and the values I measured I get 1, 3, 13, ??, 4, 8, ??. These should either correspond...
  21. amjad-sh

    I Van Laue Formulation: X-ray Diffraction from Crystal Structure

    When we shine an X-ray beam on a crystal, according to Van Laue formulation, for a sharp intensity peak to be observed on the screen there is a specific direction ##\mathbf{\hat{n}}## , in which for all the X-rays with wavelength ##\lambda## and wavevector...
  22. C

    Find the ratio of the energy of the La characteristic x-ray to the Ka

    I found my energies for Potassium. I have 3.3 KeV for the k alpha nd 254.6 ev for L alpha, using z=19 and n=3. Are these values correct? Edit: I found the ratio to be .077
  23. A

    What Are the Optimal Thicknesses for X-ray Mask Components?

    Hi I have a question. I don't know from which formula I can get the answer. I'm looking for in different books and papers but I did not find. I'm very appreciate if someone kindly guide. Regards, For an X-ray mask, what should the thicknesses of the silicon membrane and absorbers (gold or...
  24. S

    A Exploring Bragg/von Lau Scattering: A Discussion of X-Ray Experiments

    Overview of thread: 1. Quick derivation of bragg scattering 2. Discussion of modern xray experiments as they relate to bragg/fraunhofer 3. Summary of points. Bragg/von Lau Scattering: (I will be following Ashcroft if you want to sing along, pg 98-99) Imagine you have light incident on some...
  25. A

    I X-ray Astronomy: Charged Ions Energy Distribution

    Does anyone know the energy distribution of highly charged ions in solar wind or other astrophysical context?
  26. FVZZBO

    I How Do You Find K Beta X-Ray Energy?

    I know you can use Moseley's law to calculate K Alpha X-ray energy. Can this law be used to calculate the K Beta energy? $$ \Delta E = (-13.6eV)(Z-1)^2\left(\frac{1}{n_{1}^2}-\frac{1}{n_{2}^2}\right) $$ I saw on http://minerva.union.edu/labrakes/PIXE_Physics100_Lecture3_F14.pdf that they use...
  27. A

    Wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) spectroscopy

    I read the "J. Phys. Chem. B 2018, 122, 7616−7624" paper where they calculated the pair distribution function using wide-angle X-ray scattering and mentioned the term " The distances to the first coordination shell for low-, high-, and very-high-density amorphous ice (LDA, HDA, VHDA) were...
  28. Asmaa Mohammad

    I Scatter radiation and film fogging

    Hello, During the procedure of radiography using x-rays, scatter radiation occurs, due to the difference in densities of the object being radiographed. That scatter radiation causes fogging (noise) of the film, i.e. the contrast of the film is reduced due to extra darkening of some areas of...
  29. S

    X-ray production and ionization energy

    I am confused with the Kvp and Kep. I know that In the x-ray tube, after heating the filament and the electron cloud if formed, then the step-up transformer is going to increase the voltage and reduce the current to produce a high potential difference to that electrons will accelerate from the...
  30. N

    Calculating Roentgens from an X-Ray source

    Hey, I want to try to estimate the Roentgens/sec from an X-Ray tube. Here are my calculations, which I talk through so that I am not just throwing equations at you. I would be grateful if someone could comment if they are about right. Stage 1: Estimation of emitted X-Ray strength Assumed: 1...
  31. C

    I Why the reflected angle is the same as incident in x-ray diffraction?

    I'm reading about x-ray diffraction in the context of crystal structure determination. Usually this discussion begins with Bragg's law, $$2d\sin\theta=n\lambda,$$ where ##\theta## is the angle of incoming and "reflected" x-rays. This is the bit that bothers me. I understand that the...
  32. U

    How to Calculate X-ray Diffraction Peak Positions for Hydrated Siderite?

    Hi, I know the material being studied is FeCO3.H20 (hydrated siderite) and the wavelength for a D2 diffractometer with a Co tube is 1.79026. In order to use Bragg's Law to calculate the peak positions, I think I need to first calculate d using the equation with the Miller indices and a which...
  33. O

    I Can I detect electrons using X-ray film?

    I'm conducting a research about making a electron gun. I first tried to detect electron using nuclear emulsion plate. But I couldn't purchase one near my town. So, instead, I'm thinking about using a x-ray film to detect electron. But I'm not sure it'll work. SO, IS IT POSSIBLE TO DETECT...
  34. marielescobal

    A Raman and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    Summary: How can I know the effects of ions on my coating using Raman and XPS? Hi! So I'm working on my thesis regarding surface morphology of Zn doped HAp coating. Now, my goal is to know the effects of Zn ions on the surface morphology of my coating using raman and xps. Jowever, I do not...
  35. B

    Looking for Freeware to Generate X-Ray Spectra? Check Out These Options!

    Hi there, Was just wondering if anyone knew of any good freeware for generating X-ray spectra from a standard Tungsten anode that you might see in medical radiography? Would be good if it could export data as well, but yeah and just wanting something that can potentially generate the spectra...
  36. K

    Medical What can generally be seen in a x-ray image?

    To give context: A friend of mine took an x-ray of his thoracic spine because he's feeling pain in that region. I think he's going to show the x-ray to the doctor this week. I, as a physics student, was asking myself, what can be seen through an x ray. In the case of my friend, it's unlikely...
  37. Livio Arshavin Leiva

    I What explains the sharpness of XRD peaks?

    I was reviewing an old topic for me that's x-ray diffraction, and one doubt I always had in my mind arised again. When introducing the Bragg's law, the typical explanation is that the x-ray waves reflecting in two adjacent planes interfere with each other, leading to a fully constructive...
  38. J

    MHB Calcite X-Ray Diffraction: Find Smallest Angle

    Hello, I have a question about this optics related problem. The distance between atomic planes in calcite is 0.30 nm. what is the smallest angle between these planes and an incident beam of 30pm x-rays at which diffracted x-rays can be detected? Thank you so much for the help guys!
  39. Cool4Kat

    I Why are more x-rays made from metal than glass

    i know that x-rays are produced when a beam of high energy electrons hits a metal anode but why does that work better than when that same beam hits glass (like in the Crookes tube)? Thanks
  40. G

    What is the unit of measurement in this X-Ray?

    Hi I hope I'm not posting under the wrong forum but I'm pretty sure this is physics related. If you go to have an X-ray, in the film there will be information detailing the dosage you just received. However I encountered a rather unusual one like this: 70kV 100mAs 100mS -- dGycm2 El_s:300 As...
  41. Eva Eva Eva

    MCNP diagnostic X-ray tube simulation

    Dear all, I would like to simulate X-ray tube and check the dose rate in the room. My problem is when I simulate 80kV electrons bombard to the tungsten target, there is just a few photons coming out from the tube window. And the dose rate at 1m from the tube is nearly zero which is impossible...
  42. M

    X-ray diffraction and Bragg's law

    Homework Statement The Attempt at a Solution Hi All, I have two issues with this question. First of all when I put the given values into the Bragg condition for diffraction I get two different wavelengths when the question implies there is only one. Secondly, I don't know how I can...
  43. R

    X-ray Flux density and a differential equation for photon scattering

    Homework Statement Consider interactions of a X-ray beam at a depth, x, within a material. The flux density is: density flux = $$\frac{I}{A}$$ where I is the intensity of the beam that cross a unit area A at right angles to the beam. Let dx be a small slice at the depth x and let dI(x) be the...
  44. J

    X-Ray Absorption: 0.7cm Bone Thickness | Homework Help

    Homework Statement A radiographer in a hospital directs a parallel beam of X-Rays at the leg bone of a patient. The attenuation coefficient of bone is 0.7cm-1. To 1 sig fig. what is the intensity of X-Rays transmitted through bone of thickness 0.7cm? Homework Equations I = I₀e-μx Where I is...
  45. Clara Chung

    I Question about Powder X-ray diffraction experiment

    I don’t understand why do we use power in this experiment. If we use powder, the d spacings of each crystalline will be oriented randomly, why won’t the angle of reflection changes? I don’t understand the idea of using powder in the experiment. Thank you so much
  46. G

    I X-Ray Dose Estimate for Lower Back: Understanding Radiation Exposure

    today I took a x ray for my lower back, now medical issues aside what I want to know is is there any estimate of the dose I received? just to be clear i don't have paranoia and I know basic physics so I'm not scared but purely out of curiosity because later this year I might have to do things...
  47. G

    I X-ray tube to gamma tube question

    A recent post here made me think about this so I wanted to ask. Now a x ray tube working principle is basically the opposite of the photoelectric effect, here instead of photons electrons strike a metal target to deposit their energy which is released as heat (IR radiation) and photons. So the...
  48. DWysWysD

    256 slice CT scan x-ray tube beam silent quiet

    Just has my first CT scan ever for low dose cardiac scoring. Held my breath twice with gantry in fixed position and then once again with gantry spinning. I thought I would have heard the high pitched x-ray when beam energized but didn't at all. All I heard was normal fans and the mechanicals of...
  49. G

    How can X-ray energy transitions be identified?

    Here is what I understand so far about x-ray energy transitions within an atom: The shells are divided up from lowest to highest as K, L, M, N, O, and so on. The X-ray associated with an electron dropping to a K shell is called K radiation. If the electron drops dropped from a shell directly...
  50. Physiker98

    Voltage of thundercloud as point charge

    Hey, Theory: The voltage of a thundercloud is too low to ionize air particles and to produce a thunder. Particles of cosmic radiation are the trigger. I calculated whether the voltage of a thundercloud is enough to ionize air particles but the voltage was always to low. So I wanted to know...
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