If you throw a ball obscenely high (ignoring air resistance, etc), and the Earth is rotating, the ball will land in a different spot. Relative to an observer on the Earth, the ball has a sub-orbital trajectory across the surface. If we attach thrusters onto that ball, and have it burn at its top point until it achieves orbit, will its expended fuel be less than if the Earth wasn't rotating? Taking this to the extreme, if the Earth was rotating very quickly, would shooting something out of the atmosphere be sufficient for it to be in orbit? Or would it follow a spiral-like trajectory across the surface? Is the reference frame of an Earth observer useless because it is non-inertial?