1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data I am a bit confused on these two questions in my textbook, I have the answers to them as well. The answer the thermometer question is that the thermometer bulb should be covered in a wet cloth. The answer for the 2nd question is 10.1 MW m^-2. 2. Relevant equations How could a thermometer be modified to allow it to measure the effective temperature (windchill factor)? Calculate the rate at which thermal energy could be lost from a 3mm thick copper pipe which is carrying water at 100 C, if the surrounding air is at 20 C. 3. The attempt at a solution For the 2nd question, I have tried to use the formula Q/t =( kA deltaT)/L where K=the materials conductivity, A is the surface area, L is the thickness in metres and delta T is the change in temperature. I know that delta T=80 C and the L=0.003 and the thermal conductivity of copper is 380 Wm^-1K^-1. But I am having problems finding the A value.