# Effects of time on particles in an active synchrotron

• prankster
In summary, the conversation discusses the effects of time on particles traveling at high speeds in a synchrotron, specifically in relation to pion decay and muons. It is mentioned that time dilation and length contraction play a role in allowing these particles to travel further than expected. The possibility of expanding upon this subject in a bachelor thesis is also briefly discussed.
prankster
hello! 1st year college physics student here.

has anyone thought of the effects of time on particles traveling 99.999999% C in a synchrotron? for as it has been explained to me, when something approaches the speed of light, time for the particle slows incredibly (but of course to the particle, time appears normal). in addition, i also understand that things traveling so fast, actually contract slightly relative to the observer.

these are a few of the effects of traveling so fast, but is there any documentation on the effects of time on particles?

Yes, I think a classical example of this is pion decay in the upper atmosphere, but I am struggling to find this on Wikipedia.

The essence is that neutral pions exist for 26 nanoseconds, and that they are formed when high-energy protons hit the upper atmosphere. If they travel at close to the speed of light, you can work out they're meant to be able to travel about 26e-9 * 3e8 = 7.8 m before decaying, so we shouldn't see them in the lower atmosphere, but we do because they are so time-dilated, their lifetime becomes a lot longer so they can travel further. equivalently, to them their lifetime is the same but the distance to the surface of the Earth is greatly length-contracted, so they can reach it.

I hope this is right.

the decay of pions in the atmosphere creating muons. they have a life time of around 2.2 microsecs. so hardly any should reach sea level. However in Earth's reference frame their mean lifetime is nearer 35 microseconds which means they can travel around 10 000 m in Earth's reference frame
This was confirmed and around 37 million muons reach sea level

didnt realize mikeyW had replied =]

You can do the maths by looking at length contraction
and and the average lifetime of a muon and speed etc etc

Fermilab (near Chicago) has a superconducting synchrotron named the Tevatron, with a circumference of 6.282 kilometers, that has two counter-rotating beams, one with protons, and the other with anti-protons, each beam with total particle energies of 980 GeV (beta = 0.999999). Time in the particle's reference frame is slowed by a factor 1044.
Bob S

Do you fellows think this subject can be expanded upon a bachelor thesis?

prankster said:
Do you fellows think this subject can be expanded upon a bachelor thesis?
Not on what was discussed here. You are a freshman now? When is the bachelor thesis due? Do you have any suggestions?
Bob S

prankster said:
Do you fellows think this subject can be expanded upon a bachelor thesis?

Depends on what the requirements for a bachelor thesis at your institution. Do you even have to start thinking about one this early?

## 1. How does time affect the behavior of particles in an active synchrotron?

Time has a significant impact on the behavior of particles in an active synchrotron. As particles travel around the synchrotron ring, they experience various forces such as magnetic and electric fields. Over time, these forces can cause particles to lose energy and change their trajectory, leading to a decrease in their speed and ultimately their lifespan within the synchrotron.

## 2. What is the relationship between the lifespan of particles and the length of time they spend in an active synchrotron?

The longer a particle spends in an active synchrotron, the shorter its lifespan will be. This is due to the forces mentioned earlier that cause particles to lose energy and change their trajectory. As a result, the lifespan of particles in an active synchrotron is directly proportional to the amount of time they spend within the synchrotron ring.

## 3. How does time affect the energy of particles in an active synchrotron?

As particles spend more time in an active synchrotron, they will experience a decrease in energy. This is because the forces within the synchrotron, such as magnetic and electric fields, will cause particles to lose energy and change their trajectory. This decrease in energy can also lead to a decrease in the speed of particles.

## 4. Can the time spent in an active synchrotron affect the stability of particles?

Yes, the time spent in an active synchrotron can have a significant impact on the stability of particles. As particles continuously lose energy and change their trajectory, their stability can be compromised. This can lead to particles becoming unstable and eventually being lost from the synchrotron ring.

## 5. How does the synchrotron's operating time affect the overall efficiency of particle acceleration?

The operating time of a synchrotron can greatly affect the overall efficiency of particle acceleration. As particles spend more time in the synchrotron, they experience energy loss and a decrease in speed, which can impact the efficiency of the particle acceleration process. Therefore, reducing the time particles spend in the synchrotron can improve its overall efficiency.

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