What is Synchrotron: Definition and 31 Discussions

A synchrotron is a particular type of cyclic particle accelerator, descended from the cyclotron, in which the accelerating particle beam travels around a fixed closed-loop path. The magnetic field which bends the particle beam into its closed path increases with time during the accelerating process, being synchronized to the increasing kinetic energy of the particles. The synchrotron is one of the first accelerator concepts to enable the construction of large-scale facilities, since bending, beam focusing and acceleration can be separated into different components. The most powerful modern particle accelerators use versions of the synchrotron design. The largest synchrotron-type accelerator, also the largest particle accelerator in the world, is the 27-kilometre-circumference (17 mi) Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva, Switzerland, built in 2008 by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). It can accelerate beams of protons to an energy of 6.5 teraelectronvolts (TeV).
The synchrotron principle was invented by Vladimir Veksler in 1944. Edwin McMillan constructed the first electron synchrotron in 1945, arriving at the idea independently, having missed Veksler's publication (which was only available in a Soviet journal, although in English). The first proton synchrotron was designed by Sir Marcus Oliphant and built in 1952.

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  1. M

    A Particle distribution in the longitudinal beam dynamics in accelerator

    In longitudinal beam dynamics, particles exhibits a synchrotron motion. The motion has an amplitude (action) dependant synchrotron frequency. The motion is defined in terms of rf phase devotion deviation ##\phi## as: ##H=\dot \phi^2/2 - \Omega_s^2 \cos(\phi)## I am trying to write the particle...
  2. S

    I Orbitals and selection rules in a synchrotron

    What orbitals are occupied in a synchrotron, and which selection rules limit charged particles in a synchrotron? A Schrödinger hydrogen atom is not actually the Bohr atom, but the Bohr theory gives correct energies (but not transition probabilities). Why? Because in a hydrogen-like atom, 2s...
  3. ChinoSupay

    Exploring the Cosmos: A Chilean Astrophysicist's Journey in Magnetic Research

    I am a chilean astrophysicist that works currently in magnetic issues in the Earth, planets, star and cosmos in general. I'm also interested in graphic desing, art-science relationship and dance. Thank you!
  4. Physics345

    Synchrotron Particle Accelerator: How Does It Work?

    Homework Statement Examine the following diagram of a particle accelerator.[/B] a) Give a brief explanation of how it works. b) Describe what might happen to the particle accelerator if the magnetic field was too weak. c) Describe one change to the electric field and one change to the magnetic...
  5. V

    A Building a synchrotron light source

    Lately, I've wanted to build a compact source of synchrotron radiation that is accessible to researchers with size and budget constraints. So far, I've managed to outline designs of the superconducting dipole magnets that will be used to keep electrons moving in a ring path within the booster...
  6. K

    How Has Technology Transformed Traditional Physics Calculations?

    Let me introduce myself. I am Kevin Luxford. I graduated in Science, majoring in Physics, at Canterbury University, New Zealand, in 1963. I subsequently graduated in Engineering (Electrical) from the same university in 1966. A year or so ago I had the opportunity to tour the Australian...
  7. S

    Exploring the Direction of Synchrotron Radiation in Radio Astronomy

    I read in radio astronomy book that radiation from high-energy electrons radiating synchrotron emision, is concentrated in the direction of its instantaneous motion. So if we see them, their orbital motion plane contains us(as observer). I am wondering if they have spiral motion in the related...
  8. Cibo Matto

    Orbit decay of particles w/ synchrotron radiation?

    Hello everyone! I had a question about a particle (say a proton) with relativistic energies interacts with a magnetic field (in the z direction). As it is accelerates the particle emits synchrotron radiation. Naturally I assume that this emission of photons reduces the particle's energy. My...
  9. H

    PXRD Pattern Analysis of Metal Oxide Samples

    What benefit is gained for doing more than one measurement on a metal oxide sample with a beamline set up so that the wavelength from a Si 111 monochromator was 0.7 A to obtain a PXRD pattern and then changing the wavelength to 0.8 A to obtain a second PXRD pattern?
  10. M

    Full treatment of synchrotorn radiation

    Hello, I am trying to understand the details of the full treatment of synchrotron radiation. I am using Rybicki & Lightman (1979), along with the more detailed treatment given by Longair (1992). For instance, in Longair, chapter 18 (p.240 in the Second Edition), I see that the radiated energy...
  11. J

    What happens to particles in synchrotron accel. if weak magentic field

    Homework Statement "Describe what might happen to the particles in the accelerator if the magnetic field was too weak." Homework Equations N/A The Attempt at a Solution I am merely guessing here. I am looking on the internet for info regarding this but I can't find anything...
  12. V

    Laser light vs. synchrotron light in ARPES measurements

    In ARPES measurements, people say that the laser light cannot cover a wide area of momentum space whereas the synchrotron light can (M. Hashimoto et al., Nat. Phys. 10 (2014) 483). Why is that? (Figure 3a in the paper is a combination of laser and synchrotron data to plot spectra along the...
  13. L

    Synchrotron Spectrum: Constructing an Emission Spectrum

    Hi! I try to construct the emission spectrum from relativistic electron rotating in homogeneous magnetic field - synchrotron. In my lecture notes a found out one really easy derivation using the invariance of \frac{I'}{(\nu')^3}=\frac{I}{\nu^3}, where I is the specific intensity and \nu is...
  14. R

    Difference b/n synchrotron radiation and Free electron laser

    Hello All, Apart from using undulator or wiggler are there any big difference between synchrotron radiation and FEL? Because I notice it looks similar. In both case electron is forced to travel like a sine wave...and synchrotron radiation is produced.. Also what is the difference between...
  15. R

    Function of a Proton Synchrotron

    I am a young physics student currently attaining my A Levels, therefore my knowledge of this higher quantum physics is very limited. However, I have been given the oppotunity to possibly visit Cern, and conduct an experiment using the Proton beam (proton synchroton) and I must plan said...
  16. E

    Synchrotron X-ray Measurements

    I am curious about a question. in synchrotron station,people use x ray to do kinds of experiments. They use the x ray ,how do they know the characteristic(like wavelength,brightness) of the ray they use. Does they measure the x ray when they use it simultaneously? Does this have an bad effect on...
  17. I

    Synchrotron radiation vs cyclotron radiation?

    both involve a charge carrier undergoing centripetal acceleration thereby producing radiation from the acceleration; so what's the difference?
  18. C

    Electrical DIY Synchrotron for electron storage

    Greetings, I would like to use a synchrotron to store a stream of electrons. Usually, how long are electrons kept in synchrotrons, and how long can they be kept? I need to store them for a few hours. Thanks
  19. A

    Derive cyclotron and synchrotron frequency

    I am trying to find out how to derive the cyclotron and synchrotron frequency, but everywhere I look it is derived by saying that the force of the magnetic field is not qvB, but (v/c)qB. What on Earth is this c? I am guessing it means speed of light but then it is not the case that (v/c)qB =...
  20. A

    Optimizing the Radius of a Synchrotron for Radiation Production

    Hi, there. I have a question: If I want to build a facility for synchrotron RADIATION (not for particle physics experiment), how to chose the radius of the storage ring? (Why the radii of current facilities are so large?) Thank you.
  21. B

    How Synchrotrons Produce X-Rays: A Layman's Explanation

    Hello everyone, first time poster. A fairly basic question: What is the mechanism by which synchrotrons produce x-rays? (in more detail than e-beam + varying magnetic flux = x-rays) I'm also still confused as to whether the mechanism is unique to magnetic fields or the same as...
  22. M

    A question regarding synchrotron lightsources.

    Is it possible that a lightsource synchrotron can produce any form of ionising particle radiation other than the electrons and synchrotron and bremsstrahlung radiation, such as positrons, neutrons, protons or the like, via electron-nucleus or photonuclear reactions in the materials surrounding...
  23. V

    Synchrotron radiation and conservation of energy

    My question is "stupid"? I do have very specific questions and I accept your invitation to ask them... SpectraCat said: - "electrodynamics (i.e. Maxwell's equations) describes radiation from charged particles accelerating in a Coulomb field." So I was asking him which one of the...
  24. W

    Energy loss in synchrotron accelerators

    Homework Statement For the LEP, we are given that it is a perfectly circular accelerator with circumference 25 km and that the energy of each beam is 50 GeV. Calculate the energy lost in GeV/s by a single electron on each turn. Homework Equations The loss is given by...
  25. P

    Effects of time on particles in an active synchrotron

    hello! 1st year college physics student here. has anyone thought of the effects of time on particles traveling 99.999999% C in a synchrotron? for as it has been explained to me, when something approaches the speed of light, time for the particle slows incredibly (but of course to the...
  26. T

    Synchrotron radiation collimation

    Can someone please explain why the synchrotron radiation is very collimated? not only with equations and not only with words, both please. But anyway any efforts is really appreciated :) Thank you
  27. L

    Particle physics - calculate the synchrotron energy loss

    Homework Statement In the year 2000, the highest energy beams at LEP were achieved, at E = 104.5GeV. a) Calculate how much larger was the synchrotron energy loss at this energy, relative to the synchrotron energy loss at E = 45.1GeV Homework Equations E_{loss} = (E/m)^4 x...
  28. R

    Synchrotron Radiation Units: Photons/s/mrad^2/1%BW

    Hi I have a question about the common unit for the intensity of a synchrotron X-Ray spectrum: \frac{Photons}{sec*mrad^{2}*0.1\%BW} I am not sure how to interpretate the 0.1%BW. How do I get the numbers of Photons/sec/mrad2 in an Energy range lets say from energy E_1 to energy E_2...
  29. M

    Explaining Synchrotron Radiation in Electron's Frame

    Hi. As an "I'm bored Saturday afternoon exercise" I have been working out some stuff regarding bending magnets on linacs. This question came to me while thinking about particle energy losses inside the bending magnet. Imagine an electron moving in a synchrotron with constant speed, radius...
  30. D

    Ring Nebula: Synchrotron Radiation & Magnetic Fields

    Is the beauty and color to the Ring Nebula due to synchrotron radiation of particles (electrons) with higher energy (spin) being blueshifted the closer they are to the white dwarf at the center? If so is it the magnetic field that spins the electrons intensly and the futher away the electrons...
  31. M

    Questioning EM Waves, Synchrotron Emission & Blackbody Radiation

    I'm reading an astronomy textbook, and I'm not sure about some things. The textbook says the EM waves are caused by accelerating charges. I don't understand how this is. I'm not sure, but my memory and intuition tells me that only charges moving in a sinuosidal (can never spell it) manner...