# Electric Potential(V) and Electric Potential Energy(U) laws

• lonewolf219
In summary, the statements given about voltage and potential energy are correct. Voltage increases as a particle nears a proton and decreases as it nears an electron. Potential energy also follows this trend, with U increasing as a particle moves in the opposite direction of an electric field and decreasing as it moves in the same direction. However, the direction of the charge must be taken into account when calculating potential energy. Positive charges will have a more positive potential energy and negative charges will have a more negative potential energy.
lonewolf219
Hi, I was wondering if anyone could tell me if these 4 following statements are correct?

1. V increases as a particle nears a proton

2. V decreases as a particle nears an electron

3. U increases as a particle moves in opposite direction of Electric Field

4. U decreases as a particle moves in same direction of Electric Field

The answer to the above depends totally upon the charge on your "particle".
But the rule is that, if particles are attracted to each other, the Potential Energy decreases as they get closer and vice versa.

Statements 1 and 2 are true. Voltage is defined with the convention that positive charges are involved. Electrical potential energy multiplies voltage by the charge, so negative charges will have negative electrical potential energy compared to positive charges (assuming an appropriate reference point for U equal to zero).

3. U increases as a particle moves in opposite direction of Electric Field
False - for a positive charge, U becomes more positive. For a negative charge, U becomes more negative (assuming an appropriate reference point for U equal to zero).

4. U decreases as a particle moves in same direction of Electric Field
False - for a positve charge, U becomes less positive, for a negative charge, U become less negative (assuming an appropriate reference point for U equal to zero).

I've been studying this concept for weeks, and should have asked you guys! Thank you very much, rcgldr.

Yes, these statements are correct. Electric potential (V) is a measure of the electric potential energy (U) per unit charge at a given point in space. As a particle nears a proton, the electric potential increases because the positive charge of the proton creates a strong electric field that repels the particle. Similarly, as a particle nears an electron, the electric potential decreases because the negative charge of the electron creates a strong electric field that attracts the particle.

The electric potential energy (U) also depends on the direction of the electric field. When a particle moves in the opposite direction of the electric field, it experiences a force that is opposite to the direction of its motion. This results in an increase in electric potential energy. On the other hand, when a particle moves in the same direction as the electric field, it experiences a force that is in the same direction as its motion. This results in a decrease in electric potential energy.

Overall, these laws demonstrate the relationship between electric potential, electric potential energy, and the direction of the electric field. They are important concepts in understanding the behavior of charged particles in electric fields and have practical applications in many fields of science and technology.

## 1. What is Electric Potential (V)?

Electric Potential (V) is a measure of the electric potential energy per unit of charge at a given point in an electric field. It is also known as voltage and is represented by the unit volt (V).

## 2. What is Electric Potential Energy (U)?

Electric Potential Energy (U) is the energy that a charged particle possesses due to its position in an electric field. It is a scalar quantity and is represented by the unit joule (J).

## 3. What is the relationship between Electric Potential (V) and Electric Potential Energy (U)?

Electric Potential (V) and Electric Potential Energy (U) are directly related to each other. The electric potential at a point is equal to the electric potential energy per unit charge at that point. In other words, V = U/q, where q is the charge at that point.

## 4. How is Electric Potential (V) measured?

Electric Potential (V) is measured using a device called a voltmeter. It is connected in parallel to the component or circuit whose potential difference is to be measured. The voltmeter displays the potential difference in volts (V).

## 5. What factors affect Electric Potential Energy (U)?

The factors that affect Electric Potential Energy (U) include the magnitude of the charge, the distance between the charges, and the nature of the medium between the charges. Electric Potential Energy is directly proportional to the magnitude of the charge and inversely proportional to the distance between the charges. It also varies with the type of medium, as different materials have different abilities to store electric potential energy.

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