Energy level Diagram relating to SP3 hybridization

In summary, the nitrogen atom in ammonia, NH3, has four identical orbitals in the shape of a pyramid or tetrahedron. These hybrid orbitals form in the C atom when it bonds with nitrogen, and the bonding is different than with the carbon atom.
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Homework Statement



Experimental evidence suggests that the nitrogen atom in ammonia, NH3, has four identical orbitals in the shape of a pyramid or tetrahedron.

a) Draw an energy level diagram to show the formation of these hybrid orbitals.

(hint: No electron promotion is required)

b) Name the type of Hybrid orbitals found in NH3. Of the four hybrid orbitals on the N atom, how many will take part in bonding?

c)Draw for yourself the energy – level diagram showing the hybrid orbitals formed in the C atom when it bonds. Now look at those hybrid orbitals and those of the N atom, and describe how the bonding with a N atom will di²er with the bonding that occurs with a C atom, even though both atoms have four hybrid orbitals oriented in a tetrahedral shape

Homework Equations



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The Attempt at a Solution


a)

KuUvJNv.png


KuUvJNv

b) sp^3 Is the hybrid orbital found in NH_3 in this case Nitrogen wants to complete its valence shell becoming like the noble gas Neon, thus it takes 3 electrons from each 1s orbital from the three hydrogen atoms and completes its 2p orbital forming a complete shell and a sp^3 hybridization. Therefore, it uses three hybrid orbitals.

c) The bonding with the nitrogen atom is different compared to the carbon atom. The carbon atom has 4 incomplete orbitals and only 2 electrons in its 2p orbitals while the third 2p orbital remains empty, while the nitrogen atom has 4 incomplete orbitals as well but the difference is that it has 3 electrons in each of its 2p orbitals.

IO7JmdG.png

I was just wondering if I did these correctly. Thanks in advance.
 

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  • #2
The explanation looks basically right. I would not label the individual hybrid orbitals as s and p. They would all be called sp3 orbitals, as they all contain some commbination of characteristics from s and p orbitals. So each hydrogen's 1s orbital mixes with one sp3-orbital (not a p-orbital) to form a N-H bond.

In answer (b), I would clarify that three sp3 orbital are used for bonding while the fourth sp3 orbital contains a lone pair (it is a non-bonding orbital).
 
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Based on your comments, I have rewrote my answers: Let me know what you think :)
p639acy.png

Ignore the attached file I accidentally posted that, now I can't figure out how to remove it, oh well.
 

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Last edited:

Related to Energy level Diagram relating to SP3 hybridization

1. What is an energy level diagram in relation to SP3 hybridization?

An energy level diagram is a visual representation of the energy levels of electrons in an atom or molecule. In the context of SP3 hybridization, it shows the energy levels of the atomic orbitals involved in the hybridization process.

2. How does SP3 hybridization affect the energy levels of the orbitals involved?

SP3 hybridization involves the combination of one s orbital and three p orbitals to form four hybrid orbitals. These hybrid orbitals have a lower energy than the original p orbitals and a higher energy than the original s orbital, resulting in a more stable overall energy level.

3. What is the significance of the energy level diagram in understanding SP3 hybridization?

The energy level diagram allows us to visualize the changes in energy levels and the resulting stability of the hybrid orbitals. It also helps in predicting the geometry of the molecule formed due to SP3 hybridization.

4. Can the energy level diagram be used to determine the type of hybridization in a molecule?

Yes, the energy level diagram can be used to determine the type of hybridization in a molecule as it shows the energy levels of the orbitals involved in the hybridization process. In SP3 hybridization, for example, the diagram will show the combination of one s orbital and three p orbitals to form four hybrid orbitals, indicating SP3 hybridization.

5. How does the energy level diagram change for different types of hybridization?

The energy level diagram will vary depending on the type of hybridization involved. For example, in SP2 hybridization, the diagram will show the combination of one s orbital and two p orbitals to form three hybrid orbitals, while in SP hybridization, it will show the combination of one s orbital and one p orbital to form two hybrid orbitals.

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