What is Hybridization: Definition and 77 Discussions

In molecular biology, hybridization (or hybridisation) is a phenomenon in which single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules anneal to complementary DNA or RNA. Though a double-stranded DNA sequence is generally stable under physiological conditions, changing these conditions in the laboratory (generally by raising the surrounding temperature) will cause the molecules to separate into single strands. These strands are complementary to each other but may also be complementary to other sequences present in their surroundings. Lowering the surrounding temperature allows the single-stranded molecules to anneal or “hybridize” to each other.
DNA replication and transcription of DNA into RNA both rely upon nucleotide hybridization, as do molecular biology techniques including Southern blots and Northern blots, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and most approaches to DNA sequencing.

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  1. S

    Quantum hybridized orbitals

    Hello, I have a few questions about these images that I shared. 1) What does t represent? I am assuming Es is the energy of the atoms before they hybridize, and that t is either the gain or reduction of energy due to the new orbitals that are formed through bonding. Am I way off on this? 2)...
  2. L

    B Quantum Entanglement & Hybridization

    I'm conflicted about how hybridization and quantum entanglement can simultaneously co-exist. I'm first confused about how quantum entanglement was proven. I tried to read to proves (I'm in grade 11 and planning on writing an ee on this) and it flew relatively over my head. Hybridization states...
  3. E

    I Sp3 hybridization azimuthal quantum number

    The s orbital corresponds to l=0 The p orbital corresponds to l=1 For an electron in an sp3 hybridization orbital what is l?
  4. Mayhem

    Hybridization of atoms in heterocyclic compounds

    I'm trying to fortify my understanding of aromaticity in heterocyclic compounds. I understand that every atom in an aromatic compound must be sp2 hybridized (I don't like the "conjugated" definition), which is easy to spot for carbon, but how do I determine it for atoms such as nitrogen, oxygen...
  5. Hamiltonian

    Doubt related to Drago's rule

    Drago rule states that if – the central atom has at least one lone pair of electron on it the central atom belongs to group 13,14,15 or 16 and is from the 3rd to 7th period. if electronegativity of the central element is 2.5 or less no. of sigma bonds+ lone pair=4 then, there is no need to...
  6. G

    Chemistry Investigating dsp2 & sp3 Configurations in Ni2+ Complexes

    I was expecting Ni2+ to be present also in the answer as it can give dsp2 and sp3 configuration. [Ni(CN)4]2- and [Ni(NH3)4]2+ have dsp2 and sp3 respectively, right?
  7. C

    Question about sp3 hybridization

    why is sp2 hybridized carbon is need with only 3 hybridized orbitals and one unhybridized orbital? The unhybridized orbital forms a bond anyway. Then why can't they be hybridized and form the same bond
  8. Physics345

    Energy level Diagram relating to SP3 hybridization

    Homework Statement Experimental evidence suggests that the nitrogen atom in ammonia, NH3, has four identical orbitals in the shape of a pyramid or tetrahedron. a) Draw an energy level diagram to show the formation of these hybrid orbitals. (hint: No electron promotion is required) b) Name...
  9. M

    Energy diagram for hybridized oxygen in CO

    Homework Statement Please look at the screenshot attached. The answer is "Yes", but I am not sure why. Homework Equations N/A The Attempt at a Solution Oxygen have six electrons, but the energy diagram shows only five. That was why I thought it was wrong, but the diagram shown is correct...
  10. gonadas91

    A Anderson model with no hybridization

    Hi guys, I wass recently thinking about the Anderson model in its non-interacting limit U=0. I ommit spin in the following and then the hamiltonian is H_{0} + \varepsilon_{0}d^{\dagger}d + \sum_{k} V_{k}c_{k}^{\dagger}d + \text{h.c} It is well know that due to the hybridization term V, a...
  11. A

    Hybridization, Antibonding Orbitals and All that Jazz

    This going to be a long post ! Orbital Dilemma: i) Why there is opposite phase orbital for s-orbital? [ Couldn't find any representation on the web except for a pic in Ian Fleming's Molecular Orbitals and Organic Chemical Reactions,pg3) *I assert no right over the image,image is referenced...
  12. J

    Why does hybridization occur?

    Let us use methane as an example. I thought that hybridization only occurs when the carbon atom bonds with the four hydrogen atoms. But apparently hybridization of the carbon atom occurs first, then the bonding with the hydrogen atoms form. My questions are: 1) What causes hybridization? 2)...
  13. CMATT

    Predict the hybridization and geometry of the indicated atom

    Homework Statement Predict the hybridization and geometry of the indicated atom. Answer all parts. Homework Equations CH3CH2 There is a ( - ) sign above the second C Hybridization = ? Geometry = ? The Attempt at a Solution I know I'm supposed to count the groups around the atom, but I'm...
  14. Karan Punjabi

    Oxygen's hybridization in H2O

    Guys I saw that during formation of H2O the oxygen atoms undergoes sp3 hybridization but my question is that what is the need for that? Yeah I also noted it was for occurring because of minimizd repulsion between p orbitals but why s orbital undergo for hybridization ?
  15. F

    Determining hybridization in a compound

    I've got several following questions on hybridization? 1) How many kinds of hybridization are there? Like sp, sp2, Is sp2d is possible? Give examples. 2) How can we determine what kind of hybridization exist in atoms of a compound? I know several techniques but those seem like shortcut...
  16. W

    (Urgent) question concerning molecular orbitals

    Hello all I have an exam coming up this week but there's something that I don't understand: Let's take methane, for example. If I understand it correctly, the bonding orbitals of carbon are all hybridized to sp³ orbitals and overlap with the 1s orbital of four H atoms. Does the orbital of...
  17. T

    Relationship Between Hybridization, Bond Length, and Reson

    Hello, I am currently taking Organic Chemistry and was wondering what is the relationship between bond length, hybridization, and resonance? In other words, do some hybridization have smaller bond length? How is that affected by resonance?
  18. K

    Acidity in organic compounds and hybridization

    Homework Statement Label the acid hydrogen in each of the following compounds and arrange them in order of increasing acidity and explain the trend. Homework Equations N/A The Attempt at a Solution I'm not quite sure what the question means by "label" the acidic hydrogen but I believe...
  19. mnmman

    Hybridization of carbanion in rings

    So this question asked me to determine whether this compound was aromatic, antiaromatic, or nonaromatic and also asked how many pi electrons there were. I figure since there are four groups of electrons the carbanion is sp3 hybridized and I think I'm correct because that is what this thread...
  20. K

    Organic chemistry hybridization and bond angles

    Homework Statement Determine the hybridization of the atoms labeled A, B and C in the molecule and the bond angles around them. Homework Equations N/A 3. The Attempt at a Solution A. Normally, I would say it is sp3 for oxygen since there are 4 groups attached to it including the lone...
  21. soulhunter

    The relationship of orbital hybridization between quantum mechanics

    is the hybrid orbital the solution of Schrodinger equation ? Or why we have to make orbital hybridization?
  22. P

    Bond Angles, Bond Lengths and Hybridization

    Consider the hypothetical molecule 1,3,5-cyclohexatriene (not benzene, I am referring to a molecule where no resonance takes place - a molecule with three C=C bonds and 3 C-C bonds). Each carbon atom in this molecule would be participating in one double bond, and so each carbon atom would be sp2...
  23. Q

    Hybridization and Hypervalent molecules

    Are species such as sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid better represented as charge-separated species rather than as species with no formal charge on any of the constituent atoms? Also are the central atoms of trigonal bipyramidal molecules (e.g. phosphorous) hybridized as sp3d2 or do such...
  24. S

    Question regarding orbital hybridization in DFT

    Hello All! I was wondering if anyone can tell me if or if not the wavefunctions used to construct the electron density in density functional theory contains hybridizied orbitals. I have been working with a planewave pseudopotential code and in the input file of a pseudopotential, say...
  25. Conservation

    Hybridization of orbitals for Phosphorus in Phosphate Ion

    A relatively easy question regarding hybridized orbital (keep getting confused for some reason): What is the hybridization state for the central phosphorus atom in a phosphate ion? I would presume that it would be sp3d to fulfill the expended octet/five bonds with the four oxygen atoms, but I...
  26. C

    Hybridization Question: Image Explained

    Homework Statement http://img42.com/ASivg [Broken] Please look at this image. 2. The attempt at a solution Hello, I was looking at this image. Why is the top image sp? Shouldn't it be sp2 because there are double bonds on both sides? I understand the rest. Please advise, any help would be...
  27. Q

    Sulfur Hybridization and Bonding

    Homework Statement http://i.minus.com/jsdp6WZ2nqRY9.jpg [Broken] Homework Equations Sulfur is sp2 hybridized. Sulfur is also nonpolar having an AXE of AX3 and no lone pairs. It is trigonal planar. The Attempt at a Solution I'm not sure if sulfur can be represented by three...
  28. Q

    Hybridizing Xenon: Exciting Electrons to d Orbitals?

    Homework Statement When we hybridize xenon, do we excite one electron each from its 5s and 5p orbitals to its d orbital? I know the ground state xenon looks something like this: http://i.minus.com/jbt6v4btYTThFJ.jpg [Broken] But when it's hybridized does Xenon look like this...
  29. Q

    Understanding the Hybridization of Sulfur and Carbon in SO2

    Hybridization of carbon Pretty sure my professor is wrong once again. SO2 should have two double bonds which gives the sulfur a minimal formal charge and two signs bonds. The two sigma bonds imply sp hybridization, not the blatantly wrong circled answer.
  30. U

    Central atom hybridization?

    http://img577.imageshack.us/img577/2892/3kow.png [Broken] both NH3 and SO2 and NH4+ have hybridization sp3
  31. A

    A problem in hybridization

    How could I know the hybridization type in such a question
  32. M

    Electrons when their spin changes for hybridization?

    Forgive me in advance if this appears to be a dumb question but, as I was reviewing a few basic chemistry topics, namely orbital hybridization, I came across a question. From what I gather, according to Hund's Rule, an electron must be put into all open orbitals before the remaining orbitals can...
  33. N

    Hybridization of carbon-is my teacher right?

    hybridization of carbon--is my teacher right? https://www.myhaikuclass.com/c/937570/file/show/15157688.jpg (comes up as a download) Hi, in the link above, I am looking at the 1st image. This is the answer my teacher offered, but at 7 and 8, shouldn't the hybridization be sp, not sp2...
  34. M

    (C2)2+ ion hybridization?

    Hi, According to the molecular orbital diagram of the (C2)2+ ion you its a stable ion, because it has a bond order of 1 & that means its a stable substance. Now if you draw the lewis structure you could obtain the geometric arrangement of the electron pairs ( groups) around the central atom...
  35. M

    Is hybridization the result of electron promotion?

    Hi, I wonder if hybridization occurs due to the promotion of electrons? If the promotion would not occur, neither would hybridization? Thanks for the help!
  36. jaumzaum

    Why molecules of small atoms have hybridization and the big ones don't

    I was solving an exercise my teacher asked us, to determinate the hibridization of the molecules. He give the molecule and I have to tell which hibridization it is. I want to know if I can do this to every molecule, I mean, are all molecules in the world hybridized? If so, why do we have to...
  37. Τ

    Hybridization of Oxygen in Formaldehyde: Exploring the Orbitals and Bonds

    This isn't a homework problem, but rather a question that I thought about. Given a Formaldehyde CH_{2}O molecule, what would the hybridization of the oxygen atom be? I know that the hybridization of the carbon atom would be: C = \frac{\uparrow}{2sp^{2}} \frac{\uparrow}{2sp^{2}}...
  38. X

    Hybridization of carbon in carbonyl group

    Homework Statement CH3CN [ in presence of aq. H2SO4 and 2H2O] → CH3COOH + NH3 The Attempt at a Solution There is a triple bond present between Carbon and nitrogen, hence the first will be sp hybridized, while there is double bond between carbon and oxygen in the second, hence it should...
  39. K

    What is the hybridization of SnCl3 and is sp2 hybridization the correct answer?

    I just had my exam today, so I had this question that is, what is the type of hybridization which occurs in SnCl3 - , my answer is sp2 hybridization because I thought that the last electron left wouldn't be hybridized. Am I correct?
  40. M

    Σ and ∏ bonds and hybridization

    I am having difficulties understanding the concept of hybridization and the σ and ∏ bonds. My current understanding is that basically you just mix up a p and s orbital and it gives you an sp orbital, and if the bonds touch they are σ bonds, and if the bonds are parallel the are ∏ bonds. I don't...
  41. Q

    What kind of reaction is hybridization.

    What kind of reaction is hybridization.It is endothermic or exothermic.
  42. L

    Hybridization of nitrogen in rings.

    Homework Statement I understand that the hybridization of, say, ammonia is sp3. I see that the nitrogen atom of pyridine is sp2. I don't understand why the nitrogen of pyrrole is sp2. I understand that it is aromatic and thus must be sp2. But there are three bonds and one lone pair which...
  43. A

    Xenon Tetrafluoride hybridization

    Homework Statement Hi I would like to understand how does the hybridization of an inert gas(fully stable octet)--Xenon happen? Since hybridization happens to promote electrons to higher sublevels but xenon's sublevels are already full. So how and why does the hybridization occur...
  44. D

    Orbital Hybridization - Real or Approximation

    I've been reading the book "why chemical reactions happen", and according to my understanding, it seems as though orbital hybridization is just an "approximation" and not real, as in there is no such orbital, while MO are (real). Is my understanding correct? Or are MOs also just approximations...
  45. A

    Hybridization in aniline

    Hey friends, can someone tell me the hybridization of the nitrogen atom in aniline? I think it should be sp3 but I am not sure. Also, should all atoms in the molecule be planar to satisfy the planarity rule for aromaticity?
  46. C

    Orbital hybridization and lone electrons

    Do single non bonding electrons (i.e. on a free radical) always occupy non hybrid orbitals? For example the methyl radical has trigonal planar molecular geometry so the lone electron must occupy a p orbital. Why doesn't it occupy an sp3 orbital instead?
  47. A

    Hybridization and Bonding

    Question 1: When hybridization takes place, how do all the hybridized orbitals have the same energy? Here is an extract from my book: sp2 Hybridisation in C2H4: In the formation of ethene molecule, one of the sp2 hybrid orbitals of carbon atom overlaps axially with sp2 hybridised...
  48. E

    Hybridization of Chlorine

    Homework Statement In the perchlorate atom I understand that there is a tetrahedral electron cloud arrangement around Chlorine, but I am still unclear has to how to draw the hybrid orbital for the Chlorine when it does not have any lone pairs? Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution I have...
  49. M

    Hybridization of atomic orbitals

    Hi all, To my knowledge hybridization of atomc orbitals occurs only between orbitals in the same atom, with similar energies, in order to produce new atomic orbitals, identical with the same energy, to make chemical bonds with other atoms. There are sp, sp2, sp3, etc... possibilities. My...
  50. C

    The hybridization of P in phosphate

    My query is concerning the hybridization of P in Phosphate (PO43-) I'd like to draw the Lewis dot structure here, but I'm not sure if that's possible. So I drew up some things on my whiteboard, and took a few pictures, there's all the info you need. Look at the left image first, thank you...
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