# Gravitational Quadrupole Formula: Polarization Tensor

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• pervect
In summary: I'll try to answer the specific questions.The second goal is to reduce the tensor quantity resulting from the 3d time derivative of Q_{ij} into a scalar that can be squared, then summed to give the total emitted power in gravitational radiation from the power/unit angle. This is done by taking the dot product of the 3d time derivative of Q_{ij} with the unit normal to the space-time plane in which the radiation is taking place:$$\frac{dP}{d\Omega} = = \frac{ G} {8 \pi c^2 } \left( \frac { d^3 Q_{ij} } { dt^3 pervect Staff Emeritus Science Advisor In "Gravitational radiation from point masses", by Peters & Mathews, http://gravity.psu.edu/numrel/jclub/jc/Peters_Mathews_PR_131_435_1963.pdf, the emitted power from gravitatioanal quadrupole radiation per unit solid angle ##\Omega## is given by:$$ \frac{dP}{d\Omega} = = \frac{ G} {8 \pi c^2 } \left( \frac { d^3 Q_{ij} } { dt^3} {e}^{ij} \right) $$I'm somewhat familiar with the quadrupole moment Q_{ij}, but not the polarization tensor ##e_{ij}##. Any pointers as to how this tensor is defined and/or where I can find more information? I don't recall reading about this tensor in any of my texts, but it seems to be important in reducing the tensor quantity resulting from the 3d time derivative of Q_{ij} into a scalar that can be squared, then summed to give the total emitted power in gravitational radiation from the power/unit angle. Very old paper, and you rarely see it applied in relativity, but of course you can. Things like ##e_{ij}## are known as polarization tensor of the wave (as you said). It comes from the Eikonal approximation, which you rarely see used in GR, so I only know of one person who uses it, the underrated relativist Bryce DeWitt! You can find this approximation used in GREAT detail in his lectures notes on gravitation. EDIT: Specifically, chapter 15 on gravitational waves. And also, if you can't get access to the book, let me know and I can put more details in this thread for you. If you want more math, I can into that. If you want the physical intuition, I can try my best to explain that as well. The first goal is to make sure I have the components of the polarization tensor correct. Let us choose spherical coordinates (r, ##\theta##, ##\phi##) and radiation in the ##\hat{r}## direction, the "hat" over the r denoting a unit vector (same notation as the author, I believe). Then what I'd expect is that we replace the unit vectors ##\hat{x}## and ##\hat{y}## for radiation in the ##\hat{z}## direction with the unit vectors ##\hat{\theta}## and ##\hat{\phi}##. Performing a direct substitution in the expressions for e1 and e2, I get:$$e1 = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \left( \hat{\phi}\hat{\phi} - \hat{\theta}\hat{\theta} \right) \quad e2 = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \left( \hat{\phi} \hat{\theta + \hat{\theta} \hat{\phi}} \right)

Furthermore I'm assuming that ##Q_{ij}## as well as the polarization tensors are 3-tensors based on the remarks about "working in a gauge where ##e_{\mu\nu}## is spacelike.

Does this look OK so far? I'm also rather puzzled about how the author gets from 3&4 to 5, but this may just be a matter of grinding things through from the above assumptions.

Finally, any insight would be appreciated. I don't quite see why we should have to assume a specific basis to get a tensor expression for the radiated power in a unit angle. Physically, choosing ##\hat{r}## and ##\hat{t}## makes sense, I have no problem with that. The bivector orthogonal to (r,t) is well defined as well. But in the calculation for power, we wind up assuming a specific choice of basis vectors for the spatial plane orthognal to (r,t). Using these specific basis vectors, we finding the power in the two polarizations, which are basis dependet because the polarizations are basis dependent, then sum both powers to get the total power, which should be basis independent. The process seems a bit awkwards, and not in the spirit of coordinate independence, though perhaps it is simply convenient. It's not clear to me what the alternative might be, though.

romsofia
Those look correct, my copy of his notes are in my office, and I'll respond in more detail tomorrow.

pervect said:
Finally, any insight would be appreciated. I don't quite see why we should have to assume a specific basis to get a tensor expression for the radiated power in a unit angle. Physically, choosing ##\hat{r}## and ##\hat{t}## makes sense, I have no problem with that. The bivector orthogonal to (r,t) is well defined as well. But in the calculation for power, we wind up assuming a specific choice of basis vectors for the spatial plane orthognal to (r,t). Using these specific basis vectors, we finding the power in the two polarizations, which are basis dependet because the polarizations are basis dependent, then sum both powers to get the total power, which should be basis independent. The process seems a bit awkwards, and not in the spirit of coordinate independence, though perhaps it is simply convenient. It's not clear to me what the alternative might be, though.
So, I don't have as much time as I would like to review the topic as I would've liked (and I've forgotten more than I'd like to admit on the topic), and since it's 4th of July this weekend, even less likely I'll have time to write it up until next week, but I do think I will write something about this in my lecture notes! So I do appreciate this thread for that reason. But, I'll have to think about what the alternative would be as well. Bryce DeWitt's notation is always an issue to work through, but he does go through the math in both the E+M wave case, and gravitational wave case. However, to get to the section on this in his book, you have to slog through all his math.

However, that won't be of use to you until they're done. For the meantime (or until you can access his notes), hopefully this can hold you over:

pervect

## 1. What is the Gravitational Quadrupole Formula?

The Gravitational Quadrupole Formula is a mathematical equation that describes the gravitational field produced by a mass distribution that is not spherically symmetric. It takes into account the shape and orientation of the mass distribution and is an extension of the more commonly known Newton's Law of Gravitation.

## 2. What is the Polarization Tensor in the Gravitational Quadrupole Formula?

The Polarization Tensor in the Gravitational Quadrupole Formula is a mathematical object that describes the distribution of mass and its orientation. It is a symmetric, second-rank tensor that contains information about the shape and orientation of the mass distribution.

## 3. How is the Gravitational Quadrupole Formula used in astrophysics?

The Gravitational Quadrupole Formula is used in astrophysics to study and understand the gravitational effects of objects such as planets, stars, and galaxies. It is particularly useful in studying systems that are not perfectly spherical, such as binary star systems or rotating galaxies.

## 4. What is the significance of the Gravitational Quadrupole Formula in the study of gravitational waves?

The Gravitational Quadrupole Formula is a key component in the study of gravitational waves. It is used to calculate the amplitude and polarization of gravitational waves, which are ripples in the fabric of space-time caused by the acceleration of massive objects. By studying the polarization of gravitational waves, scientists can learn more about the source of the waves and the nature of gravity itself.

## 5. How does the Gravitational Quadrupole Formula relate to Einstein's Theory of General Relativity?

The Gravitational Quadrupole Formula is derived from Einstein's Theory of General Relativity, which is a more comprehensive and accurate theory of gravity compared to Newton's Law of Gravitation. The formula takes into account the curvature of space-time caused by the presence of massive objects, as predicted by General Relativity. This makes it a more precise and useful tool for studying the effects of gravity in the universe.

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