In mathematics, a tensor is an algebraic object that describes a (multilinear) relationship between sets of algebraic objects related to a vector space. Objects that tensors may map between include vectors and scalars, and even other tensors. There are many types of tensors, including scalars and vectors (which are the simplest tensors), dual vectors, multilinear maps between vector spaces, and even some operations such as the dot product. Tensors are defined independent of any basis, although they are often referred to by their components in a basis related to a particular coordinate system.
Tensors have become important in physics because they provide a concise mathematical framework for formulating and solving physics problems in areas such as mechanics (stress, elasticity, fluid mechanics, moment of inertia, ...), electrodynamics (electromagnetic tensor, Maxwell tensor, permittivity, magnetic susceptibility, ...), or general relativity (stress–energy tensor, curvature tensor, ...) and others. In applications, it is common to study situations in which a different tensor can occur at each point of an object; for example the stress within an object may vary from one location to another. This leads to the concept of a tensor field. In some areas, tensor fields are so ubiquitous that they are often simply called "tensors".
Tullio Levi-Civita and Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro popularised tensors in 1900 - continuing the earlier work of Bernhard Riemann and Elwin Bruno Christoffel and others - as part of the absolute differential calculus. The concept enabled an alternative formulation of the intrinsic differential geometry of a manifold in the form of the Riemann curvature tensor.
Here is an action for a theory which couples gravity to a field in this way:$$S = \int d^4 x \ \sqrt{-g} e^{\Phi} (R + g^{ab} \Phi_{;a} \Phi_{;b})$$I determine\begin{align*}
\frac{\partial L}{\partial \phi} &= \sqrt{-g} e^{\Phi} (R + g^{ab} \Phi_{;a} \Phi_{;b}) \\
\nabla_a \frac{\partial...
My question is about this step in the derivation:
When the ##\partial_\nu \mathcal L## in 3.33 moves under the ##\partial_\mu## in 3.34 and gets contracted, I'd expect it to become ##\delta_{\mu \nu} \mathcal L##. Why is it rather ##g_{\mu \nu} \mathcal L## in the 3.34?
(In this text, ##g_{\mu...
I am currently reading this book on multilinear algebra ("Álgebra Linear e Multilinear" by Rodney Biezuner, I guess it only has a portuguese edition) and the book defines an Algebra as follows:
It also defines the direct sum of two vector spaces, let's say V and W, as the cartesian product V x...
Penrose demonstrates in his book "The Road to Reality" a "diagrammatic tensor notation", e.g.,
As I haven't seen it anywhere else, I wonder if anybody else uses it.
$$K'_{ij}A'_{jk}=B'_{ik}=a_{ip}a_{kq}B_{pq}=a_{ip}a_{kq}K_{pr}A_{rq}=a_{ip}a_{kq}K_{pr}a_{jr}a_{kq}A'_{jk}$$$$K'_{ij}=a_{ip}a_{kq}a_{kq}a_{jr}K_{pr}$$
Can someone point out my mistake? What I've found shows that K is not a tensor.
It is different from my book and I cannot find my mistake...
It's a 4th-dimensional 4th-rank tensor so at first we have ##4^4=256## components.
According to the book, Given that ##R_{iklm}=-R_{ikml}## 256 components reduces to 96. But I cannot see how.
For one pair of i,k 16 components are dependent. We have 12 pairs of i,k(for ##i≠k## becsuse for i=k...
Hi there, have a wonderful next year!
I'm here because I have a doubt. I was trying to generalize the Einstein Field Equation for Von Neumann W* Algebra, which is related with non-integer, non always positive degrees of freedom. In particular, with the sum of positive and negative fractal...
The Riemann curvature tensor contains second derivatives of metric and squares of the first derivatives. The second derivatives have to be there because they are the ones that cannot be eliminated locally by a choice of coordinates. But other than being a mathematical artifact, is there a...
Good morning friends of the Forum. For me it is difficult to geometrically imagine a tensor of order 2 and maybe that is why it is difficult for me to know, what remains invariant when making a change of coordinates of this tensor. The only thing I can think of it, is that since a tensor of...
$$ {\Lambda}^{i}_{j} $$
When indices are written on top of one another I am confused wich is the inner index and which is the lower one when we lower the upper index.
The sigma tensor composed of the commutator of gamma matrices is said to be able to represent any anti-symmetric tensor.
\sigma_{\mu\nu} = i/2 [\gamma_\mu,\gamma_\nu]
However, it is not clear how one can arrive at something like the electromagnetic tensor.
F_{\mu\nu} = a \bar{\psi}...
Question:
Solution:
I need help with the last part.
I think my numerical factors are incorrect, even if I add the last term it will get worse. What have I done wrong, or is there a better way to deal with this?
Hello,
I realize this might sound dumb, but I'm having such a hard time understanding Einstein notation. For something like ∂uFv - ∂vFu, why is this not necessarily 0 for tensor Fu? Since all these indices are running through the same values 0,1,2,3?
I do private studies on my own for fun and right now I read about relativistic field theory as a preparation for later studies of quantum field theory.
I simply do not understand where equation 13.78 in Goldstein's "Classical Mechanics" third edition comes from. Please explain.
Please also...
I have the following question to solve:Use the metric:$$ds^2 = -dt^2 +dx^2 +2a^2(t)dxdy + dy^2 +dz^2$$
Test bodies are arranged in a circle on the metric at rest at ##t=0##.
The circle define as $$x^2 +y^2 \leq R^2$$
The bodies start to move on geodesic when we have $$a(0)=0$$
a. we have to...
The Einstein tensors for the Schwarzschild Geometry equal zero. Why do they not equal something that has to do with the central mass, given that the Einstein equations are of the form: Curvature Measure = Measure of Energy/Matter Density?
In the book general relativity by Hobson the gravitational wave of a binary merger is computed in the frame of the binary merger as well as the TT-gauge. I considered what components of the Riemann tensor along the x-axis in both gauges. The equation for the metric in the source and TT-gauge are...
New to group theory. I have 3 questions:
1. Tensor decomposition into Tab = T[ab] +T(traceless){ab} + Tr(T{ab}) leads to invariant subspaces. Is this enough to imply these subreps are irreducible?
2. The Symn representations of a group are irreps. Why?
3. What is the connection between...
Consider a Lagrangian, #L#, which is a function of, as well as other fields #\psi_i#, a traceless and symmetric tensor denoted by #f^{uv}#, so that #L=L(f^{uv})#, the associated action is #\int L(f^{uv}, \psi_i)d^4x #.
To vary w.r.t #f^{uv}# , I write...
Hi,
I've been doing a course on Tensor calculus by Eigenchris and I've come across this problem where depending on the way I compute/expand the Lie bracket the Torsion tensor always goes to zero. If you have any suggestions please reply, I've had this problem for months and I'm desperate to...
Hi, I'm struggling with understanding the idea of tensor product and direct sum beyond the very basics. I know that direct sum of 2 vectors basically stacks one on top of another - I don't understand more than this . For tensor product I know that for a product of 2 matrices A and B the tensor...
I'm reading Carroll's GR notes and I'm having trouble deciphering a particular expression for the Riemann curvature tensor. The coordinate-free definition is (eq. 3.71 in the notes): $$R(X,Y)Z=\nabla_X\nabla_YZ-\nabla_Y\nabla_XZ-\nabla_{[X,Y]}Z$$ An index-based expression is also given in (eq...
Why do the Cauchy Stress Tensor & the Energy Momentum Tensor have the same SI units? Shouldn't adding time as a dimension changes the Energy Momentum Tensor's units?
Did Einstein start with the Cauchy Tensor when he started working on the right hand side of the field equations of GR?
If so, What...
So, I've been watching eigenchris's video series "Tensors for Beginners" on YouTube. I am currently on video 14. I, in the position of a complete beginner, am taking notes on it, and I just wanted to make sure I wasn't misinterpreting anything.
At about 5:50, he states that "The array for Q is...
So, I've been watching eigenchris's video series "Tensors for Beginners" on YouTube. I am currently on video 14. I am a complete beginner and just want some clarification on if I'm truly understanding the material.
Basically, is everything below this correct?
In summary of the derivation of the...
Hello everybody! I know in classical field theory adding in the Lagrangian density a term of the form Fαβ (*F)αβ (where by * we denote the dual of the field strength tensor) does not change the EOM, since this corresponds to adding a total derivative term to the action. However when computing...
I'm reading Semi-Riemannian Geometry by Stephen Newman and came across this theorem:
For context, ##\mathcal{R}_s:Mult(V^s,V)\to\mathcal{T}^1_s## is the representation map, which acts like this:
$$\mathcal{R}_s(\Psi)(\eta,v_1,\ldots,v_s)=\eta(\Psi(v_1,\ldots,v_s))$$
I don't understand the...
As I understand it, parallel transport of a vector around a closed loop on a manifold can lead (in the tangent space) to 1) an angular change, given by the Riemann curvature tensor or, 2) a translational defect given by the Torsion tensor.
I can see how the looping on the curvature of a 2D...
So, I have recently been trying to learn how to work with tensors. In doing this, I have come across Einstein Notation. Below is my question.
$$(a_i x_i)_{e}= (\sum_{i=1}^3 a_i x_i)_r=(a_1 x_1+a_2 x_2+a_3 x_3)_r$$; note that the following expression is in three dimensions, and I use the...
Following from Wikipedia, the covariant formulation of electromagnetic field involves postulating an electromagnetic field tensor(Faraday 2-form) F such that
F=dA
where A is a 1-form, which makes F an exact differential form. However, is there any specific reason for expecting F to be exact...
It's possible that this may be a better fit for the Differential Geometry forum (in which case, please do let me know). However, I'm curious to know whether anyone is aware of any standard naming convention for the two principal invariants of the Weyl tensor. For the Riemann tensor, the names of...
Hi,
it's about the task e)
Since the density is homogeneous, I have assumed the following for ##\rho=\frac{M}{V}##.
I then started the proof of ##I_{23}##, the integral looks like this:
$$ I_{23}=\int_{}^{} -\frac{M}{V}r'_2r'_3 d^3r$$
Now I apply the transformation
$$ I_{23}=\int_{}^{}...
Hi,
unfortunately, I am not getting anywhere with the following task
The inertia tensor is as follows
$$\left( \begin{array}{rrr}
I_{11} & I_{12} & I_{13} \\
I_{21} & I_{22} & I_{23} \\
I_{31} & I_{32} & I_{33} \\
\end{array}\right)$$
I had now thought that I could simply rotate the...
I am reading about symmetries in crystals, and my knowledge in the field of group theory is almost nill. I am reading that, in the worst case, the electrical and thermal conductivity tensors can possess, at maximum, 6 different entries rather than 9, thanks to Neumann's principle which states...
Hi Pfs
i have 2 matrix representations of SU(2) . each of them uses a up> and down basis (d> and u>
If i take their tensor product i will get 4*4 matrices with this basis:
d>d>,d>u>,u>d>,u>u>
these representation is the sum equal to the sum of the 0-representation , a singlet represertation with...
I am reading Tensor Calculus for Physics by Dwight E. Neuenschwander and am having difficulties in following his logic regarding proceeding to derive the components of Angular Momentum and from there the components of the Inertia Tensor ...
On page 36 we read the following:
In the above text...
My field is physics and I'm very cautious about the "math describing the Nature" attitude, but I can't help admiring the deep richness of mathematics!
The other day, I was checking about isotropic tensors. An isotropic tensor keeps its components in all coordinated systems transformed under...
I came across a statement in《A First Course in General Relativity》:“The only matrix diagonal in all frames is a multiple of the identity：all its diagonal terms are equal.”Why?I don’t remember this conclusion in linear algebra.The preceding part of this sentence is:Viscosity is a force parallel...
I came across a statement in《A First Course in General Relativity》on page 97 which confused me.It read:"if the forces are perpendicular to the interfaces,then##T^i{^j}##will be zero unless ##i=j##".
Where the ##T## is stress-energy tensor,##T^i{^j}##is the flux of i momentum across the j surface.