How can O- and COO- act as an electron releasing group in a π system?

  • Thread starter Hemant
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can anyone explain me how O negative and COO negative acts as electron releasing group,I understood how alkyl groups acts as electron releasing group but I can't understand this
 

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TeethWhitener
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Are you referring to activation/deactivation of aromatics? It might help to write out the possible resonance structures. At any rate, for both species, there is a large electron density on the functional group that can form a somewhat continuous connection with the conjugated pi system of the aromatic group.
 
Through resonance of the pi orbitals. Sometimes resonance is more important than electronegativity.
 

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