# How does a cyclotron work?what can it be used to make?can it be made

• skullcracker
In summary: The betatron has a metal ring in the middle that is not visible on the picture. The coils are wound around this metal ring. The magnetic field generated by the AC power causes the electrons to be accelerated around a circular path.
skullcracker
how does a cyclotron work?what can it be used to make?
can it be made as a school project?

ok but there is no simplified example. this said i stumbled upon a beta tron and have absolutely no idea what it is about

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/magnetic/cyclot.html

Start at the beginning. Tell us exactly where you first get stuck, and what you don't understand at that point, and maybe someone will help you get un-stuck. Then you can continue from that point and tell us where you next get stuck, etc.

thanks for the link however i did not understand how d charged particle/electron turned in a clockwise direction if a magnetic field is applied it shouldn't it decelerate and accelerate in the opposite direction ?

the links were quite helpful however i read in Wikipedia that ''A betatron is a cyclotron to accelerate electrons The betatron is essentially a transformer with a torus-shaped vacuum tube as its secondary coil. An alternating current in the primary coils accelerates electrons in the vacuum around a circular path.The betatron was the first important machine for producing high energy electrons."
so how is it similar to a transformer?
could someone explain the design of the betatron in more detail?

The AC power generates a changing magnetic field. In a normal transformer this changing field causes an electric field in the secondary windings, which is how you step up or down the voltage and current in normal power lines. Instead of having a secondary winding, you insert the vacuum torus. The changing magnetic field accelerates the electrons since they are charged particles. I believe the changing magnetic field is able to accelerate the electrons because instead of the particle moving relative to the field, the field is the one "moving". This field accelerates the electrons away from it which happens to be in the direction of motion for the electrons. Someone correct me if I'm wrong.

skullcracker said:
the links were quite helpful however i read in Wikipedia that ''A betatron is a cyclotron to accelerate electrons The betatron is essentially a transformer with a torus-shaped vacuum tube as its secondary coil. An alternating current in the primary coils accelerates electrons in the vacuum around a circular path.The betatron was the first important machine for producing high energy electrons."
so how is it similar to a transformer?
could someone explain the design of the betatron in more detail?

On the picture in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betatron, I think that the white ring in the middle is the torus, with a connection pipe for the vacuum pump.

Such a betatron is similar of construction to the transformer type that is depicted and explained here:
http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/energy/inside-transformer1.htm
The coils are wound around a metal piece in the centre, which is not visible on the picture.

More is explained here:
http://teachers.web.cern.ch/teachers/archiv/HST2001/accelerators/teachers notes/betatron.htm

However, suddenly it strikes me that there is an important detail that has escaped me!
Probably they use a stainless steel torus and I think that if such a torus isn't insulated at one place, then it would function like a secondary winding - which would shield the magnetic induction inside. Does anyone here know about this issue? I didn't find a reference on it...

## How does a cyclotron work?

A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator that uses a combination of electric and magnetic fields to accelerate charged particles, such as protons or electrons, to high energies. The particles are injected into a hollow, circular chamber and are then accelerated by alternating electric fields as they move around the chamber. As the particles gain energy, they are guided by strong magnetic fields towards a target, where they can be used for various purposes such as medical treatments or scientific research.

## What can it be used to make?

A cyclotron can be used to produce a variety of particles, such as protons, neutrons, and heavy ions. These particles can be used in a wide range of applications, including cancer treatment, nuclear medicine, and materials science research. Cyclotrons can also be used to produce radioactive isotopes for medical imaging and industrial purposes.

Yes, cyclotrons can be made and have been in use since the early 1930s. They require a significant amount of technical expertise and specialized equipment to build, but many research institutions and medical facilities have their own cyclotrons for various purposes. There are also companies that specialize in manufacturing and selling cyclotrons for commercial use.

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