A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator invented by Ernest O. Lawrence in 1929–1930 at the University of California, Berkeley, and patented in 1932. A cyclotron accelerates charged particles outwards from the center of a flat cylindrical vacuum chamber along a spiral path. The particles are held to a spiral trajectory by a static magnetic field and accelerated by a rapidly varying (radio frequency) electric field. Lawrence was awarded the 1939 Nobel Prize in Physics for this invention.Cyclotrons were the most powerful particle accelerator technology until the 1950s when they were superseded by the synchrotron, and are still used to produce particle beams in physics and nuclear medicine. The largest single-magnet cyclotron was the 4.67 m (184 in) synchrocyclotron built between 1940 and 1946 by Lawrence at the University of California, Berkeley, which could accelerate protons to 730 mega electron volts (MeV). The largest cyclotron of its kind is the 17.1 m (56 ft) multimagnet TRIUMF accelerator at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, which can produce 520 MeV protons.
Close to 1500 cyclotrons are used in nuclear medicine worldwide for the production of radionuclides.
For this question part d, KE=mv^2/2=q^2B^2r^2/2m (I rearranged B=mv/qr for v and subbed into mv^2/2). q^2b^2r^2/2m=2F_cyc^2r^2m(pi)^2
But when I subbed the values in I got 16.45MeV but the answer says 165keV instead. I'm not sure what went wrong?
What's a good explanation for part e also?
For this problem,
The solution is,
However, I don't understand why they say just before the proton escapes? Are they assuming that the B-field is only at a portion of region which means that only half or so of the circular path is within the B-field so only half of the path have a magnetic...
In the ch1 if solid state physics Mermin & Ashcroft, in the hall effect section these paragraph are about cyclotron frequency, but what the two last terms want to say(the screen shot of the page is attached)? And I can't understand what happens to hall constant in high-field regime?
I read the Wiki page
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electron_cyclotron_resonance
as well as this answer here
How does a cyclotron work?
and it describes a setup where one has a cyclotron which has a static magnetic field pointing up through the dees and there is an alternating high voltage...
Hi all!
So recently me and a group of friends have begun working towards the construction of a cyclotron - and I was wondering, if anybody here would have an idea what kind of materials would be able to be used for the vacuum chamber that aren't specific Aluminium Alloys such as 7075 or 6061...
Homework Statement
An electron in a cathode-ray tube is accelerated through a potential difference of 10 kV, then passes through the d = 2.4-cm-wide region of uniform magnetic field in the figure.
Homework Equations
- Am I taking the entirely wrong approach in the solution?
The Attempt at a...
Homework Statement
I'm making a ball cyclotron (https://rimstar.org/science_electronics_projects/ball_cyclotron_electrostatic_accelerator.htm) for a school project. To generate enough voltage, I'm using a Van der Graaf-generator. The problem is that all the voltage, which I can measure...
In electron cyclotron resonance of metals/solids can there be electron acceleration without them engaging in collision ? I read the last para of electron cyclotron resonance wikipedia page which stated this
Hi,
I'm simulating in MCNP6 the reaction of proton beam on targets but in the simulation the 96% of the proton are lost for energy cutoff.
I don't understand why happen that. I use a tally4 to obtain the reaction in the target, but I suppose the results are wrong because the lost of protons (if...
Why could you not use a non-linear accelerator, like the LHC (but obviously nowhere as big)? Would it non be able to produce positrons more quickly because it can obtain larger fractions of the speed of light in a smaller period of time?
I was at CERN and remember reading somewhere that it is possible to build a cyclotron for the price of 17 US dollars, if anyone has any useful links they could send my way (to blueprints or useful diagrams, it would be much appreciated thank you) :)
Homework Statement
The cyclotron radius of a proton moving at 3.0*10^5 m/s perpendicular to a 5*10^-6T magnetic filed is:
Homework Equations
r=mv/qB
The Attempt at a Solution
So plug and chug:
r= (1.6*10^-27)(3*10^5)/(1.602*10^19)(5*10^-6)
r=625.5m
However they have it down as .625m. Where...
I'm trying to understand cyclotron resonance measurements of electron effective mass in intrinsic silicon. I need to understand the theory used to make the computations of effective mass in non-parabolic bands.
A basic introduction to the cyclotron technique is here, but only for parabolic...
I'm trying to work out what velocity and magnetic field strength one needs to capture the charged particle in a circle of comfortable lab size - say 5cm ( 0.05m).
For a sodium ion ( mass = 3.8175407 × 10-26 kg) with charge q = 1.60217653 x 10 -19 , velocity 183234 m/s, C in a magnetic field...
the charged particle undergoes acceleration because of the presence of electric field between the two Dee. as a result the electric field needs to change it's direction according to the motion of the charged particle. since the time period of the charged particle does not depend upon the...
It has been over 15 years since I completed a Masters of Science in Electrical Engineering. However that alone does not really date me much. So far I have yet to find a source of employment that lasts long enough or is of enough compensation to pay off student loans before I can even begin to...
Homework Statement
Estimate the total path length traveled by a deuteron in a cyclotron of radius 53 cm and operating frequency 12 MHz during the entire acceleration process. Accelerating potential between dees is 80 kV.
mass m = 3.2e-27 kg
charge q = 1.6e-19 C
radius r = 0.53 m
frequency f =...
I'm exploring building a very small basement cyclotron. I have a solid professional electrical engineering background; the only major new technology for me would be the ultra-high vacuum, so I think it's at least possible. I've been going through Humphries' Principles of Charged Particle...
Can a ray gun be created? What would it fire? plasma? I know that the dimendion of the ray gun are too short for what am i going to say, but i want to ask if aside this problem this could work: I thought that maybe the things that you put in the ray gun to charge it are batteries, and that the...
Homework Statement
A proton is accelerated to an energy 5Mev in a cyclotron with AC pd of 1KV and the frequency of 8MHz applied to dees.
Calculate the number of times proton would have to pass the dees to reach the energy 5MeV?
Homework Equations
F=BQV=MV^2/r
The Attempt at a Solution...
Are the D's necessary in a cyclotron? It seems to me that the same effect could be achieved without the discontinuity, which would eliminate the need for a high operating voltage. If the D's are replaced by a complete conducting circle of metal, you could just apply the alternating voltage to...
Homework Statement
Cyclotrons are widely used in nuclear medicine for producing short-lived radioactive isotopes. These cyclotrons typically accelerate H− (the hydrideion, which has one proton and two electrons) to an energy of 5MeV to 20MeV. This ion has a mass very close to that of a proton...
Hey so help me out here please. This is an Edexcel Physics A2 question (I'm doing A Levels). I really don't know if this will make sense at all lol
So there are cyclotrons- where the mass of the particle must me constant, that is, the limitation of the cyclotron is that it does not take into...
Homework Statement
A electron cyclotron has a frequency of 2450 Hz and a magnetic field strength of 50T.?
a) what's the speed of the electron?
b) what was the voltage on the electron gun which projected the electron into the cyclotron?
Homework Equations
Givens:
r=.4m
B=50T
f=2450Hz...
I am having trouble making sense of the frequency of oscillations for a cyclotron. What I don't understand is, if a the voltage difference of the two dees is switched twice ( each time the particles are about to enter them), then why is the frequency of oscillation the same as the frequency at...
The E-field originating from the opposite surfaces (above and below) cancel out one another but what about the fields originating from the circular sides? Why is the electric field inside the cyclotron zero then?
Homework Statement
Calculate the lower limit of the electron scattering time in a material placed in a magnetic field of 1 T which is necessary to observe cyclotron resonance. The electron effective mass in the material
is 0.06 ##m_o## (where ##m_o## is the free electron mass).Homework...
1. Say that an electron is heading towards the Earth from the sun with an initial known velocity v. And we know that at Earth's surface the magnetic field is given by B1. This B varies as (R1/R2)^2 where R1 is the radius of the earth. How can I find the location in space, R3/R1, where R3 is the...
According to the equation F=BQ/2pieM the frequency depends on the magnetic field and not the speed or radius of the particle. Can someone please explain why?
B= Magnetic field strength Q=Charge M=Mass
I think it's because of the force felt due to magnetic field so the time it reaches the dees...
Homework Statement
A cyclotron has oscillator frequency of 12×10^6 cycles /sec and dee radius 21 inches .Calculate the magnetic induction B needed to accelerate deutrons .
Given e=1.6 ×10^-19 coulomb and M (21H )=3.3×10^-27 kg.
Homework Equations
Frequency f= Bq/2πΜ
The Attempt at a Solution...
So, I'm beggining to work in a cylcotron as operator. Most of the crew here has technical education, albeit not quite a physics degree. When i asked what's the distribution of energies of the particles when they hit the target i got a blank look.
How could i determine this? I'm guessing that...
cyclotron -- relationship between velocity and radius
in a cyclotron the radius of the path of electron increases.but how if the velocity of the electron is accelerated its kinetic energy should only increase but why is it's radius increasing despite the fact that it's moving to the dee with...
Homework Statement
Let's consider a Tokamak with major radius R=1m and minor radius a=0.3m, magnetic field B=5T with a deuterium plasma with central density 10^{20}m^{-3}, central temperature 1keV and parabolic temperature and density profiles \propto (1-r^2/a^2)
a) Find the electronic...
Homework Statement
Compare the cyclotron resonance signal from Silicon in figure 28.9b (in Ashcroft and Mermin) with the geometry of the conduction band ellipsoids shown in figure 28.5, and explain why there are only two electron peaks although there are six pockets of electrons. Homework...
If I have a charged particle traveling into a constant B field it will bend its path and emit cyclotron
radiation. If a magnetic field can't do work then what caused the charged particle to change its kinetic energy. I guess if I was in the electrons rest frame their would be an E field in...
Homework Statement
Give expressions for the first and second harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency.
Homework Equations
Gyration frequency is ωB = (eB) / (mec)
Interval between cyclotron lines is Δv = (eB) / (2∏mec)
The Attempt at a Solution
I think that (although my...
Hello everyone,
I'm very interested in building a cyclotron as a learning experience over the next year or so and have been doing some reading on what's required. I figure it would be helpful to ask everyone's opinion on materials such as electromagnets, beam detectors, vacuum cambers, etc. I'm...
Homework Statement
If a cyclotron with a maximum chamber radius of 110 cm can accelerate ##_{4}^{2+}He##, (alpha particles) up to a energy of 140 MeV, calculate
A) The magnetic field and comment on your answer.
If the accelerating voltage is 3 kV and the source of alpha particle is...
Description of the paradox:
We have a charged ring, which rotates at high speed. Since rotating charges produce cyclotron radiation, it emits photons. There is a toroidal mirror around the ring, spinning together with it. The mirror reflects the photons back inside, preventing them from...
Hi, I am a new member. May you help me with this problem?
In Azbel-Kaner cyclotron resonance, a B field is placed parallel to the sample surface to make cyclotron motion, an oscillation electric field is place to induce resonance.
There is a link about this...
I am trying to find out how to derive the cyclotron and synchrotron frequency, but everywhere I look it is derived by saying that the force of the magnetic field is not qvB, but (v/c)qB. What on Earth is this c? I am guessing it means speed of light but then it is not the case that (v/c)qB =...
Homework Statement
One of the first cyclotrons, built in 1932, has D-s with a diameter of 28 cm, and its magnet was capable of producing magnetic field of 1.4 T. What is the maximal energy of the protons accelerated by this cyclotron? What is the frequency of the circular motion?Homework...
Hello!
I am interested in building a cyclotron. Since I doubt that I will be compotent enough to build a cyclotron right now, what are some tips that you can give me to get me started on the (long) process towards building a cyclotron. I understand the several dangers - I am interacting with...