I'm trying to understand antenna theory again, and i'm again stumped by the concept of VSW (voltage standing waves). I understand standing waves, I remember these from a level physics, however I do not really understand how voltage can be a wave, and how it reflects. From my understanding of voltage it is really hard to understand how it can reflect. a voltage is the difference in electrical potential energy (per unit charge) between two places. This electrical potential energy (per unit charge) difference describes the force on that unit charge (due to the electric fields), and the distance this charge will travel. For example, with an electrical potential energy (per unit charge) difference of 10V or 10J/Q, an electron at the higher potential will travel to the lower potential. If the distance between these two potentials is 2 meters, the force on the electron will be 5N, as it travels from one potential to the other. (If the electric field is constant between the two potentials. If it is not, the integral of the force across the 2 meters will still equal 10, however the force will vary at different distances) Voltage is just a made up concept to help explain the forces that charged particles experience. It isn't a real thing that can be reflected. So what is being reflected? I'm guessing it is the electric field, as this has an actual propagation speed, and even though the electric field is also a made up concept to describe the force a charged particle will experience at that point in the field, it is easier to imagine this being reflected. So can someone please explain to me how this all ties together? How does an electric field propagate through a conductor? Do the vectors in this vector field change direction when there is a bend in the wire, and why do they do this? Why wouldn't the electric field escape outside of the conductor? And how does an electric field (or voltage) reflect at a short? Thanks for reading.